Quantifying the high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulative thrust: a systematic review.

Department of Chiropractic, Macquarie University NSW 2109, Australia.
Journal of manipulative and physiological therapeutics (Impact Factor: 1.25). 09/2010; 33(7):542-53. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2010.08.001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to systematically review studies that quantify the high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA) spinal thrust, to qualitatively compare the apparatus used and the force-time profiles generated, and to critically appraise studies involving the quantification of thrust as an augmented feedback tool in psychomotor learning.
A search of the literature was conducted to identify the sources that reported quantification of the HVLA spinal thrust. MEDLINE-OVID (1966-present), MANTIS-OVID (1950-present), and CINAHL-EBSCO host (1981-present) were searched. Eligibility criteria included that thrust subjects were human, animal, or manikin and that the thrust type was a hand-delivered HVLA spinal thrust. Data recorded were single force, force-time, or displacement-time histories. Publications were in English language and after 1980. The relatively small number of studies, combined with the diversity of method and data interpretation, did not enable meta-analysis.
Twenty-seven studies met eligibility criteria: 17 studies measured thrust as a primary outcome (13 human, 2 cadaver, and 2 porcine). Ten studies demonstrated changes in psychomotor learning related to quantified thrust data on human, manikin, or other device.
Quantifiable parameters of the HVLA spinal thrust exist and have been described. There remain a number of variables in recording that prevent a standardized kinematic description of HVLA spinal manipulative therapy. Despite differences in data between studies, a relationship between preload, peak force, and thrust duration was evident. Psychomotor learning outcomes were enhanced by the application of thrust data as an augmented feedback tool.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chiropractic care is a complex health intervention composed of both treatment effects and non-specific, or placebo, effects. While doctor-patient interactions are a component of the non-specific effects of chiropractic, these effects are not evaluated in most clinical trials. This study aimed to: 1) develop an instrument to assess practitioner-patient interactions; 2) determine the equivalence of a chiropractor's verbal interactions and treatment delivery for participants allocated to active or sham chiropractic groups; and 3) describe the perceptions of a treatment-masked evaluator and study participants regarding treatment group assignment. We conducted an observational analysis of digital video-recordings derived from study visits conducted during a pilot randomized trial of conservative therapies for temporomandibular pain. A theory-based, iterative process developed the 13-item Chiropractor Interaction and Treatment Equivalence Instrument. A trained evaluator masked to treatment assignment coded video-recordings of clinical encounters between one chiropractor and multiple visits of 26 participants allocated to active or sham chiropractic treatment groups. Non-parametric statistics were calculated. The trial ran from January 2010 to October 2011. We analyzed 111 complete video-recordings (54 active, 57 sham). Chiropractor interactions differed between the treatment groups in 7 categories. Active participants received more interactions with clinical information (8 vs. 4) or explanations (3.5 vs. 1) than sham participants within the therapeutic domain. Active participants received more directions (63 vs. 58) and adjusting instrument thrusts (41.5 vs. 23) in the procedural domain and more optimistic (2.5 vs. 0) or neutral (7.5 vs. 5) outcome statements in the treatment effectiveness domain. Active participants recorded longer visit durations (13.5 vs. 10 minutes). The evaluator correctly identified 61% of active care video-recordings as active treatments but categorized only 31% of the sham treatments correctly. Following the first treatment, 82% of active and 11% of sham participants correctly identified their treatment group. At 2-months, 93% of active and 42% of sham participants correctly identified their group assignment. Our findings show the feasibility of evaluating doctor-patient interactions in chiropractic clinical trials using video-recordings and standardized instrumentation. Clinical trial design and clinician training protocols should improve and assess the equivalence of doctor-patient interactions between treatment groups. This trial was registered in as NCT01021306 on 24 November 2009.
    12/2014; 22(1):42. DOI:10.1186/s12998-014-0042-7
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the reproducibility of the kinematics in rotational high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA) thrust of the upper cervical spine.Methods Twenty fresh human cervical specimens were studied in a test-retest situation with 2 manual therapists. Kinematics of C1-C2 and C0-C1 were examined during segmental rotational HVLA manipulation through an ultrasound-based tracking system. The thrust moment was analyzed by 3-dimensional aspects: the range of motion of axial rotation, flexion-extension, lateral banding, and the cross-correlation between the axial rotation and the coupled lateral banding components.ResultsDuring rotational HVLA thrust on C1-C2, the main axial rotation demonstrates an intraexaminer relationship varying from almost perfect to fair (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.71; intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.35) and a substantial interexaminer correlation of 0.73.Conclusions This study showed substantial levels of reliability for the main axial rotation component of segmental manual rotational HVLA thrust on C1-C2. Intra- and interrater reliability for flexion-extension, lateral bending, and cross-correlation was low.
    Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jmpt.2014.10.012 · 1.25 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective The objective of this study was to research the distribution of stresses and displacements in cervical nuclei pulposi during simulated cervical spine manipulation (CSM). Methods A 3-dimensional finite element model of C3/4~ C6/7 was established. The detailed mechanical parameters of CSM were analyzed and simulated. During the process, the changes in stresses and displacements of cervical nuclei pulposi within the model were displayed simultaneously and dynamically. Results Cervical spine manipulation with right rotation was targeted at the C4 spinous process of the model. During traction, levels of stresses and displacements of the nuclei pulposi exhibited an initial decrease followed by an increase. The major stresses and displacements affected the C3/4 nucleus pulposus during rotation in CSM, when its morphology gradually changed from circular to elliptical. The highest stress (48.53 kPa) occurred at its right superior edge, on rotating 40° to the right. It protruded toward the right superior, creating a gap in its left inferior aspect. The highest displacement, also at 40° right, occurred at its left superior edge and measured 0.7966 mm. Dimensions of stresses and displacements reduced quickly on rapid return to neutral position. Conclusion The morphology of the C3/4 nucleus pulposus changed during CSM with right rotation, and it created a gap in its left inferior aspect. Biomechanically, it is more safe and rational to rotate toward the healthy side than the prolapsed side of the intervertebral disk during CSM. Upon ensuring due safety, the closer the application force is to the diseased intervertebral disk, the better is the effect of CSM.
    Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 09/2014; 37(8). DOI:10.1016/j.jmpt.2014.05.007 · 1.25 Impact Factor


Available from
Sep 8, 2014