The fungal metabolite, citrinin, inhibits lipopolysaccharide/interferon-γ-induced nitric oxide production in glomerular mesangial cells.
ABSTRACT The mycotoxin, citrinin (CTN), is a secondary metabolite of the fermented products of Monascus. The mycotoxin can either suppress or stimulate immune responses. In the present study, the immunomodulatory role of CTN in nitric oxide (NO) production, a proinflammatory mediator in the process of inflammation, was investigated. NO is well known as a mediator of immune responses. Overproduction of NO catalyzed by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protects host cells against microbial invasion, while aberrant iNOS induction is associated with the pathophysiology of inflammatory events. Herein, we report that CTN significantly suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon (IFN)-γ-induced NO production in MES-13 cells, a glomerular mesangial cell line. The percentage of NO reduction caused by CTN was far greater than that of the decline in cell viability. CTN decreased iNOS gene and protein expressions in concentration-dependent manners. CTN caused declines in LPS/IFN-γ-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription-1α (STAT-1α) phosphorylation. Furthermore, LPS/IFN-γ's induction of interferon response factor-1 (IRF-1) mRNA expression was inhibited by CTN. Moreover, CTN attenuated IκB-α phosphorylation and reduced NF-κB's translocation to the nuclear fraction. Taken together, our data indicated that CTN significantly suppressed NO and iNOS expressions in MES-13 cells via inhibition of the JAK/STAT-1α and NF-κB signaling pathways.
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ABSTRACT: Zearalenone (ZEA) is an oestrogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species, considered to be a risk factor from both public health and agricultural perspectives. In the present in vivo study, a feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the in vivo effect of a ZEA-contaminated diet on immune response in young pigs. The effect of ZEA on pro-inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β and interferon-γ) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10 and IL-4) cytokines and other molecules involved in inflammatory processes (matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)/tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP), nuclear receptors: PPARγ and NF-κB1, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK): mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 (TAK1)/mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (p38α)/mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 (JNK1)/ mitogen-activated protein kinase 9 (JNK2)) in the liver of piglets was investigated. The present results showed that a concentration of 316 parts per billion ZEA leads to a significant decrease in the levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines at both gene expression and protein levels, correlated with a decrease in the levels of other inflammatory mediators, MMP and TIMP. The results also showed that dietary ZEA induces a dramatic reduction in the expressions of NF-κB1 and TAK1/p38α MAPK genes in the liver of the experimentally intoxicated piglets, and has no effect on the expression of PPARγ mRNA. The present results suggest that the toxic action of ZEA begins in the upstream of the MAPK signalling pathway by the inhibition of TAK1, a MAPK/NF-κB activator. In conclusion, the present study shows that ZEA alters several important parameters of the hepatic cellular immune response. From an economic point of view, these data suggest that, in pigs, ZEA is not only a powerful oestrogenic mycotoxin but also a potential hepatotoxin when administered through the oral route. Therefore, the present results represent additional data from cellular and molecular levels that could be taken into account in the determination of the regulation limit of the tolerance to ZEA.The British journal of nutrition 08/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This article describes the production of an anti-citrinin antibody that showed a high affinity constant (Ka) of 6.28 × 10(9) and good tolerance to organic solvent and low pH, the synthesis of a Cu (II)-embedded polymer that showed strong binding with this antibody and the preparation of packing material for an immunoaffinity column (IAC) that show good stability. Most of the IACs reported either use harsh elution conditions and are used only once or use gentle elution conditions and are reused many times. Here, through the combined use of a strong-affinity antibody and packing material with good stability, high recoveries during clean-up and yet simultaneously good stability of the IAC were successfully achieved. Under optimised conditions of 80% methanol (pH 3), the IACs were used to clean-up the extracts of Monascus colour and red yeast rice samples, followed by HPLC detection. The recoveries of citrinin from spiked samples at levels of 50-200 μg kg(-1) were in the range of 84-97%.Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 05/2013;
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ABSTRACT: The present study evaluated the immunotoxicity of citrinin (CIT), a mycotoxin produced by several Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus species. Because nitric oxide (NO), a pro-inflammatory mediator, plays an important role in the protection from pathogens, we addressed the effect of CIT on NO production by a mouse macrophage-like cell line RAW264 activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS-induced NO release from RAW264 cells was inhibited by CIT. Moreover, the transcription and expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) by LPS was suppressed by CIT. These results show that CIT suppressed the LPS-induced NO production and iNOS expression, which contribute to the host protection against invading pathogens. This suggests that CIT on LPS-induced NO release may exert adverse effects in macrophages, indicating immunotoxic effects of this toxin. .Mycotoxin Research 07/2013;