The Iconographical cycle of the Eothina Gospel Pericopes in churches from the Reign of king Milutin
ABSTRACT The paper deals with the examination of the iconographic cycle of the Eothina Gospel pericopes, in which are depicted not only the appearances of Christ after his Resurrection, hut also additional events, which have an expository function and give a visual rendering of the theological message of the Resurrection pericopes. During the Palaeologan period the Eothina were depicted in all possible detail, in order that as many scenes as possible could be produced. Thus, although there are only eleven Eothina pericopes in all, in a number of churches from the time of Milutin the cycle includes up to sixteen scenes, of a clearly narrative character. Several of the iconographic motifs of the cycle in the above churches are unique creations which mark a renewal of Palaeologan painting.
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ABSTRACT: The author presents the view that the themes referring to St. John the Precursor and the Virgin in the diaconicon of the Church of the Virgin Peribleptos in Ohrid were painted as the visual expression of the dogmatic belief in the Incarnation of the Saviour. He interprets the scenes of the Three Youths in the Fiery Furnace and of the Visitation that also appear in the diaconicon, in the same way. The recently identified figure of the prophet Elijah, painted on the western side of the diaconicon, is also published in this article.Zograf. 01/2009;
The Iconographical Cycle
of the Eothina Gospel pericopes
in Churches from the reign of King Milutin*
The paper deals with the examination of the iconograph-
ic cycle of the Eothina Gospel pericopes, in which are de-
picted not only the appearances of Christ after his Resur-
rection, but also additional events, which have an expos-
itory function and give a visual rendering of the theologi-
cal message of the Resurrection pericopes. During the Pa-
laeologan period the Eothina were depicted in all possi-
ble detail, in order that as many scenes as possible could
be produced. Thus, although there are only eleven Eoth-
ina pericopes in all, in a number of churches from the
time of Milutin the cycle includes up to sixteen scenes, of
a clearly narrative character. Several of the iconograph-
ic motifs of the cycle in the above churches are unique cre-
ations, which mark a renewal of Palaeologan painting.
1. The liturgical development of the Eothina
The name Εοthina1 is given to the eleven Gospel
passages in which the appearances of Christ after the
Resurrection are recounted. They are read during Or-
thros (matins) on the Sundays between Easter and Pen-
tecost, as well as during the Liturgy on the Sunday of
Thomas, the Feast of the Ascension and Pentecost.
According to the Armenian Τypikon of Jerusalem
(5th c.), which is one of the most important sources for
the early systematic reading of Resurrection pericopes,
at Orthros of the Agrypnia-Pannychis (all-night vigil) on
Easter Sunday were read the passages from the four Gos-
pels that recount the visit of the Myrrhophores to the
tomb.2 For this reason in the later typika, which set out
* Owing to the limited length of the present paper, only original ma-
terial is presented from my doctoral thesis (see below n. 10). I wish
to express my gratitude to Prof. Marica Šuput, for making it possi-
ble for me to visit all the churches in which the cycle is depicted, and
also for her help in researching photographic archives, with bibli-
ography and, generally, for all the assistance she gave me during my
research in Belgrade. For the photographic material, bibliography
and stimulating discussions, my warmest thanks go to the academi-
cian G. Subotić, Prof. Β. Τodić, Prof. I. Stevović and the late Prof. I.
Djordjević, whose kindness and generosity will always be engraved
deeply in my heart.
1 The epithet ἑωθινός (-ή, -όν) is derived from the noun ἕως mean-
ing dawn, morning. Cf. H. G. Liddell, R. Scott, Μέγα Λεξικόν τῆς
Ἑλληνικῆς Γλώσσης, Athens 1925, vol. 2, 414. On the liturgical use
of Eothina, v. H. Leclercq, Μatines, DACL 10, 2 (1932), cols. 2677–
2 A. Renoux, Les lectures guadragésimales du rite arménien, Revue
des études arméniennes 5 (1968) 242; S. Janeras, I vangeli domenica-
li della resurrezione nelle tradizioni liturgiche agiopolita e bizantina,
the liturgical practice in Jerusalem, the reading in Or-
thros on Easter Sunday is one of the so-called Gospels of
the Myrrhophores. In the Typikon of St. Sabas monastery
the passage from Matthew (28, 1–20) was read at Orthros
on Easter Sunday.3
Likewise in accordance with the Armenian
Τypikon4 during the services of the first week after Eas-
ter the resurrectional pericopes were read in the follow-
in: Paschale Mysterium. Studi in Memoria dell’ abate prof. Salvatore
Marsili (1910–1983), Rome 1986 (Analecta Liturgica 10), 56. Likewise
according to the Travels of Etheria (4th c.) at Orthros on the Sunday
after Easter at the basilica of the Anastasis (Holy Sepulchre) in Je-
rusalem a Resurrection pericope (Jn. 20, 26–31) was read describ-
ing the Appearance of Christ: τῶν θυρῶν κεκλεισμένων (behind the
closed doors) and the Incredulity of Thomas; cf. Éthérie. Journal de
voyage, ed. H. Pétré, Paris 1948 (SC 21), 194–196, 244–245. See also,
P. N. Τrempelas, Λειτουργικοί τύποι Αἰγύπτου καὶ Ἀνατολῆς, Athens
1961, 302; J. Mateos, Quelques problèmes de l’orthros byzantin, Pro-
che-Orient chrétien XI (1961) 17–35, 204, 212–213; R. F. Taft, The Lit-
urgy of the Great Church: an initial synthesis of structure and inter-
pretation on the eve of iconoclasm, DOP 34–35 (1980–1981) 65–66; S.
Kekelidze, Ἱεροσολυμητικὸν Κανονάριον, Jerusalem 1914, 71.
3 P. Ι. Skaltsis, Ἑωθινὰ Εὐαγγέλια, in: Ἱερουργεῖν τὸ Εὐαγγέλιον. Ἡ
Ἁγία Γραφὴ στὴν Ὀρθόδοξη Λατρεία. Πρακτικά του 5ου Πανελληνίου
Λειτουργικού Συμποσίου Στελεχῶν Ἱερῶν Μητροπόλεων, Athens
4 A. Renoux, Un manuscrit du Lectionaire arménien de Jerusalem
(cod. Jerus. arm. 121), Le Muséon 74/3–4 (1961) 377–378.
Fig. 1. Gračanica. The Virgin and the Myrrhophores at the Tomb.
MondayLk. 24, 1–12 The Myrrhophores at the tomb
Τuesday Lk. 24, 13–35 Christ’s appearance on the way to Emmaus
ThursdayLk. 24, 36 Christ’s appearance to the disciples
FridayJn. 21, 3–14Christ’s appearance at Lake Tiberias
SaturdayJn. 21, 15–25Peter speaks with Christ
SundayJn. 20, 26–31 The Incredulity of Thomas
Pl. 1. Readings for Easter week in accordance
with the Armenian Typikon of Jerusalem.
It should be pointed out that this practice of read-
ing the Eothina from the Agrypnia on Easter Sunday to
the end of Easter week (Diakainisimos) would later also
be adopted in Constantinople, as attested by the Τypikon
of the Casole (Κασούλων) Monastery, which dates the
11th century: Ίστέον ὅτι ἐν Κωνσταντινουπόλει καὶ ἐν
Παλαιστίνῃ ὅλην τὴν ἑβδομάδα τῆς διακαινησίμου
ψάλλεται εἰς τὸν ὄρθρον τὸ Ἀνάστηθι Κύριε καὶ τὰ
ἑωθινὰ εὐαγγέλια κατὰ τάξιν (“let it be known that in
Constantinople and in Palestine during the week of Eas-
ter the Arise O Lord and the Eothina Gospels readings
will be sung at Orthros”). 5
The reading of the whole Resurrection pericope
from Matthew (28, 1–20) in accordance with the Sabaitic
Τypikon, which, as we know, was included in liturgical rite
of the Serbian Church, explains why in many monuments
from the time of Μilutin all the episodes described by the
Evangelist are depicted (The Myrrhophores at the Tomb,
The Appearance of Christ to the Myrrhophores, the an-
nouncement of the Resurrection by the Myrrhophores and
the last Appearance on the Mount in Galilee).
In contrast, according to the cathedral Τypikon of
the Great Church,6 only the passage 28, 16–20, was read
from the pericope of Matthew (1st Eothinon), which is
the source for the depiction of the last Appearance of
Christ on the Mount in Galilee.
From the 10th–11th centuries there is increasing ev-
idence about the liturgical use of the Eothina Gospels,
especially in monastery typika. The taxis (order) of the
Eothina Gospels is set out in its final form in two im-
portant codices from this time, Codex 40 from Jerusalem
and the Codex 266 from Patmos, which formed the ca-
thedral Typikon of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople.7
Codex 40 from the Monastery of the Holy Cross
in Jerusalem, dating from the 10th century,8 is an espe-
cially important source as it establishes the eleven Eoth-
ina, pericopes to be read at Orthros on Sunday and in
the Liturgy on intervening feasts during Pentecost and
throughout the year.
5 G. Bertonière, The Historical Development of the Easter Vigil and
Related Services in the Greek Church, Roma 1972 (OCA 193), 77, n.
6 See below, n. 8.
7 Ι. Μ. Foudoulis, Ἡ Λειτουργία τῶν Προηγιασμένων καὶ αἱ εὐχαὶ
τῶν ἀντιφώνων καὶ τοῡ Λυχνικοῡ, Επιστημονική Επετηρίς της Θεο-
λογικής Σχολής του Πανεπιστήμου Θεσσαλονίκης 11 (1966) 287.
8 J. Mateos, Le Τypikon de la Grande Eglise II, Roma 1963 (OCP 166),
I Μt. 28, 16–20
II Μk. 16, 1–8
IIIΜk. 16, 9–20
IV Lk. 24, 1–12
VLk. 24, 12–35
VILk. 24, 36–53
VII Jn. 20, 1–10
VIII Jn. 20, 11–18
IX Jn. 20, 19–31
X Jn. 21, 1–14
XI Jn. 21, 15–25
Pl. 2. Εothina Pericopes in Codex 40 from the Holy Cross
Codex 266 of Patmos also dates from the same
time.9 Τhe manuscript gives us one of the earliest piec-
es of evidence about the festal structure of the period of
Pentecost, as the choice of the seven Sundays and the in-
tervening feasts had already been established. In the
Typikon of Theotokos Evergetis monastery in Constan-
tinople (beginning of the 12th century) the Eothina read-
ings for Orthros on seven Sundays is established.10
9 A. Dmitrievskij, Opisanie liturgicheskikh rukopisej, I, Hildesheim
10 Ibid., 565–594; R. H. Jordan, The Synaxarion of the Monastery
of the Theotokos Evergetis, The Movable Cycle March - August, Bel-
Fig. 2. Ohrid, Virgin Perivleptos. The Appearance
of Christ at the Mt. in Galilee.
In order for the reading of the eleven pericopes
be completed within the period of Pentecost and corre-
spond with the feasts of the period, the Eothina were kept
in their liturgical taxis so they would not necessarily be
read at the Orthros on Sundays, but also in the Liturgy11
in the following order:
Εothinon I Orthros Sunday of Thomas
Εothinon VIII LiturgySunday of Thomas
Εothinon IV OrthrosSunday of the Myrrophores
Εothinon II Liturgy Sunday of the Myrrophores
Εothinon V OrthrosSunday of the Paralysed Man
Εωθινό VII OrhtrosSunday of the Samaritan Woman
Εωθινό VIII OrthrosSunday of the Blind Man
Εωθινό IIIOrthros Thursday of the Ascension
Εothinon VI Liturgy Thursday of the Ascension
Εothinon XOrthros Sunday of the Holy Fathers
Εothinon XILiturgySaturday of Pentecost
Εothinon IXOrthros Sunday of Pentecost
Pl. 3. Series of readings of the eleven Eothina during Pentecost
The Myrrhophores at the Tomb (I Eothinon Mt. 28,
1–7. II Eothinon Mk. 16, 1–8. IV Eothinon Lk. 24, 1–10).
In the churches from the time of Milutin, as a rule, the
pericope of Matthew is illustrated, in which it is men-
tioned that the two Myrrhophores visited the Tomb of
In Gračanica (1319–1321) (Fig. 1), alongside the
depiction of the Myrrhophores at the Tomb (Lithos),13
the same scene will be repeated in a distinctive depic-
tion: four women on the right led by the Virgin identi-
fied by the inscription ΜΗ(ΤΗ)Ρ Θ(ΕΟ)Υ and the halo,14
fast 2005, 538-539, 566-568, 588, 590, 606-609, 632-634, 654-657; N.
Zarras, O εικονογραφικός κύκλος των εωθινών Ευαγγελίων στην πα-
λαιολόγεια μνημειακή ζωγραφική των Βαλκανίων (unpub. PhD), Ath-
ens 2006, 55 (hereafter: Zarras, Ο κύκλος των εωθινών Ευαγγελίων).
11 B. K. Exarchos, Τὸ παρ’ ἡμῖν ἰσχύον σύστημα βιβλικῶν
ἀναγνωσμάτων ἐν τοῖς τακτοῖς καιροῖς δημοσίας λατρείας, Α΄. Ὁ
κινητὸς κύκλος, Athens 1935, 55–56.
12 Among the most important examples are: Staro Nagoričino (G.
Millet, A. Frolow, La peinture du Moyen âge en Yougoslavie III, Par-
is 1962, pl. 95, 1, hereafter: Millet, Frolow, La peinture), Chilandar
Monastery (G. Millet, Monuments de l’Athos I. Les peintures, Paris
1927, pl. 73, 1, hereafter: Millet, Athos) and St. Nicetas near Skopje
(Millet, Frolow, La peinture, pl. 45, 2).
13 On the iconography of the scene, v. Α. S. Roe, A Steatite Plaque
in the Museo Sacro of the Vatikan Library, ArtB 23 (1941) 216–218; J.
Villette, La résurrection du Christ dans l’art chrétien du II au VII siè-
cle, Paris 1957, 59–87; L. Rèau, Iconographie de l’art chrétien II, Paris
1956, 538–550; G. Schiller, Ikonographie der christlichen Kunst III,
Gütersloh 1971, 18–31 (hereafter: Schiller, Ikonographie); K. Wessel,
Erscheinungen des Auferstandenen, RbK 2 (1971), cols. 377–378 (he-
reafter: Wessel, Erscheinungen).
14 V. Petković, La peinture serbe du Moyen âge I, Belgrade 1930, pl.
44c; B. Živković, Gračanica. Les dessins des fresques, Belgrade 1989,
sch. III. 9 (hereafter: Živković, Gračanica); B. Todić, Gračanica. Sli-
karstvo, Belgrade–Priština 1998, 124, n. 329, fig. 81 (hereafter: Todić,
Gračanica); idem, Serbian Medieval Painting. The Age of King Milu-
tin, Belgrade 1999, 140, fig. 81 (hereafter: Todić, Serbian Medieval
Painting); N. Zarras, La tradition de la présence de la Vierge dans les
in the middle the sarcophagus without the othonia and
soudarion (shrouds) and on the left the angel of whom
only the right-hand section remains. This unusual repre-
sentation in Gračanica of two depictions with the same
theme, but with a different utilization of the iconograph-
ic elements is, as far as I know, unique and certainly indi-
cates the existence of a different source unrelated to the
Gospel pericopes. The presence of the Virgin, as well as
the absence of iconographic elements such as the othonia
and soudarion, probably reflect the ideas we find in the
texts of the Church Fathers relating to the differing re-
sponses of the Virgin and the Myrrhophores to the fact
of the Resurrection: the Mother of God, who was already
aware of Our Lord’s Resurrection, did not require fur-
ther proof.15 In contrast, in the adjacent scene the σημεῖα
(signs) of the Resurrection are necessary in order for the
Myrrhophores to believe what has happened. In the 14th
century St. Gregory Palamas would declare that Theot-
okos’ prior knowledge of the fact of the Resurrection is a
result of her holiness as Mother of God, in contrast to the
weak faith of Mary Magdalene and the other women.16
The two different ways in which the Lithos is de-
picted in Gračanica lead us to the conclusion that the
first depiction with the Virgin, is an extended form of
the iconographic motif of the I Eothinon presented in the
second depiction. It reflects the conception we find in Pa-
tristic texts from the 14th century, that the Theotokos was
the first to meet Christ after the Resurrection.17
During this period the Virgin is also mentioned in
ecclesiastical literature as one of the Myrrhophores who
comes to the Tomb along with other women.18 We find the
pictorial expression of this tradition also in the scene of
the Appearance of Christ to the Myrrhophores (Chairete)
in Staro Nagoričino (1316–1318) with which the cycle of
Eothina begins at the eastern part of the south wall of the
bema. The third of the Myrrh-bearers, who is portrayed
upright with a halo, is equated with the Theotokos, while
the other two are in the act of revering Christ (Proske-
nysis). 19 The three Myrrhophores are also depicted in a
similar way in the frescoes of St. Prochor Pčinjski, which
have been ascribed to Michael Astrapas and are almost
contemporaneous with those in Staro Nagoričino.20
The Appearance of Christ on the Mount in Gal-
ilee (I Eothinon Mt. 28, 16–20). The scene21 is depicted
in the Peribleptos church at Ochrid (1294–1295)22 (Fig.
scènes du “Lithos” et du “Chairete” et son influence sur l’iconographie
tardobyzantine, Zograf 28 (2001) 115, fig. 2.
15 PG 132, col. 644CD.
16 PG 151, col. 244 BC.
17 Ibid., cols. 237D, 269C.
18 PG 147, col. 561A.
19 Millet, Frolow, La peinture, pl. 95, 1; Todić, Serbian Medieval
20 G. Subotić, D. Todorović, Painter Michael in the Monastery of St.
Prohor Pčinjski, ZRVI 34 (1995) 139–140, sch. 2; G. Subotić, La plus
ancienne peinture murale au monastère Gornjak, Zograf 26 (1997),
fig. on p. 116; Zarras, op. cit., 115.
21 On the iconography of the scene, v. Schiller, Ikonographie, 118–
120. N. Gkioles, “Πορευθέντες”, (Εἰκονογραφικές παρατηρήσεις), Δί-
πτυχα 1 (1979) 104–142 (hereafter: Gkioles, “Πορευθέντες”).
22 D. Ćornakov, Po konservatorskite raboti vo crkvata Sv. Bogorodi-
ca Perivleptos (Sv. Kliment) vo Ohrid, Kulturno nasledstvo 2 (1961)
75, fig. 3.
2), in St. John Kaneo (after 1295),23 in the Protaton on
Mount Athos (ca. 1300),24 in Staro Nagoričino (Fig. 3),25
in Gračanica26 and in the Chilandar Monastery (1320–
1321).27 Christ stands on a low rock at the edge of the
scene, raising his right hand in a gesture of blessing or
speaking, as he turns to the disciples in front of him,
while in his left hand holds the rolled scroll.
On the south wall of the north aisle in Bogorodica
Ljeviška is preserved a badly damaged scene that is still
unidentified. G. Babić has included it within the Eothina
cycle, since it forms part of a group of scenes depicting the
events after the Resurrection.28 Β. Todić takes the same
view, though without giving other details. 29 The figure of
23 P. Miljković-Pepek, Deloto na zografite Mihailo i Eutihij, Skopje
1967, 49, 60 (hereafter: Miljković-Pepek, Deloto); idem, Crkvata sv.
Jovan Bogoslov – Kaneo vo Oxrid, Kulturno nasledstvo 2 (1967), 82,
sch. 3. On the date of the wall-paintings, v. T. Papamastorakis, Ὁ
διάκοσμος τοῡ τρούλου τῶν ναῶν τῆς Παλαιολόγειας περιόδου στή
βαλκανική χερσόνησο καί τήν Κύπρο, Athens 2001, 316–317 (hereaf-
ter: Papamastorakis, Ὁ διάκοσμος τοῡ τρούλου).
24 Millet, Athos, pls. 12.4, 19. 3; J. D. Stefǎnescu, Iconographie de la
Bible. Images bibliques commentées, Paris 1938, pl. LXV; Gkioles,
“Πορευθέντες”, fig. 10.
25 Millet, Frolow, La peinture, pl. 97, 2; B. Todić, Staro Nagoričino,
Belgrade 1993, 110 (hereafter: Todić, Staro Nagoričino); idem, Ser-
bian Medieval Painting, 332.
26 Živković, Gračanica, sch. ΙΙΙ. 8; Todić, Gračanica, 124.
27 Μillet, Frolow, op. cit., pl. 62, 4.
28 D. Panić, G. Babić, Bogorodica Ljeviška, Belgrade 1975, p. 56, sch.
12 (hereafter: Panić, Babić, Bogorodica Ljeviška); B. Živković, Bogo-
rodica Ljeviška. Les dessins des fresques, Belgrade 1991, sch. VII. 9
(hereafter: Živković, Bogorodica Ljeviška).
29 Todić, Serbian Medieval Painting, 312.
Christ in three-quarter profile is shown up to the height
of his chest. He raises his right hand in a gesture of bless-
ing, while his left hand holds a rolled-up scroll. The right-
hand section of the scene, which probably showed the
disciples, has been lost. I believe that it must have depict-
ed the Appearance on the Mount in Galilee (Poreuthen-
des), because this is the scene that completes the Eothina
cycle, which must portray the last Appearance of Christ
to the disciples. This view is supported by the fact that
the last episodes of the cycle in Bogorodica Ljeviška are
depicted in an order that follows the same historical se-
quence found a few years later in Staro Nagoričino and
in Gračanica. In these two churches the last scene of the
Eothina cycle is the Appearance on the Mount in Gal-
ilee. Furthermore, the scene in Ljeviška appears to fol-
low the same iconographic type that is found in the oth-
er churches from the time of Milutin.
On the north face of the south-east pier in St. Nic-
etas near Skopje (after 1321) (Fig. 4), directly below the
scene showing the visit of Peter and John to the Tomb
of Christ is fragmentarily preserved that is probably the
scene of Poreuthendes.30 From the figure of Christ on the
left only the legs remain and of the disciples, depicted
on the right, the first, who must be identified with Pe-
ter, contorts his body dramatically as he bows before
Christ. Following the iconography of the scene at Sta-
ro Nagoričino and Gračanica, at St. Nicetas (aka Čučer)
Christ must have been depicted with the right hand ges-
30 Ibid., 344.
Fig. 3. Staro Nagoričino. The Appearance of Christ on the Mt. in Galilee.
turing as though in the act of speaking, while in his left
hand he held a rolled scroll.
At the Protaton Christ’s halo is inscribed in a
quadrangle with curved sides. During the Palaeologan
period this iconographic element is often found in de-
pictions31 in which the divine nature of Christ is empha-
sized and has been interpreted as a mandorla.32 This view
is supported by the fact that in the dome of Bogorodi-
ca Ljeviška the medallion with the bust of the Pantokra-
tor is inscribed on two acute-angled quadrangles, which
are arranged diagonally one on top of the other, so as to
form an eight-pointed star, and which have also been in-
terpreted as a mandorla of light.33
Indeed, from the second half of the 14th century the
combination of the acute-angled quadrangle with other
geometric forms that represent the glory of Christ, picto-
rially has been fairly frequently observed in depictions of
the Theophany. A characteristic example is the scene of
the Transfiguration in the Paris codex with the theolog-
ical works of the emperor John IX Cantacuzene, which
were influenced by Hesychasm.34 The figure of Christ is
shown in an acute-angled quadrangle, which is inscribed
in a rhomboid mandorla. This double mandorla is cir-
cumscribed within a circle, from the center of which rays
of light shine forth.35 In the examples we have cited, Pa-
tristic thought concerning the glory of Christ, which
symbolizes the very Holiness of the Lord, is reflected in
the most eloquent fashion. Metropolitan Theophanes III
of Nicea (†1380/1381), defender of the ideas of Gregory
Palamas, observes that the light of the Prosopon of the
Lord is Christ himself, while the light of the garments is
the light of the light of his Prosopon (Godhead).36
Consequently, in the depiction of the Poreuthen-
des in the Protaton the depiction of the mandorla only
in the halo of Christ emphasizes two notions: firstly the
holiness of the Risen One, who clearly manifests himself
during the time of his appearances to the circle of the dis-
ciples, and secondly the trans-temporal nature of the ap-
pearances, since in them the dimension of historical time
is abolished.37 This iconographic peculiarity in the Pro-
taton echoes the mystical current of the time and antici-
31 See, for example, the scene of Christ as the Holy Wisdom and An-
gel of Great Counsel in the Virgin Peribleptos at Ochrid [Millet, Frol-
ow, op. cit., pl. 13, 2; D. I. Pallas, Ο Χριστός ως η Θεία Σοφία. H εικονο-
γραφική περιπέτεια μιας θεολογικής έννοιας, ΔΧΑΕ 15 (1989–1990)
135–141], at Lesnovo the illustration of Psalm 148, 1–2 (S. Gabelić,
The Monastery of Lesnovo. History and Painting, Belgrade 1999, pl.
LIII, fig. 87) and at Dečani in scenes from the cycle of Genesis (V.
R. Petković, Dj. Bošković, Manastir Dečani II, Belgrade 1941, pl.
CCLII–CCLVI, CCLXI, hereafter: Petković, Bošković, Dečani).
32 V. Mako, Geometrijski oblici nimbova i mandorli u srednjoveko-
vnoj umetnosti Vizantije, Srbije, Rusije i Bugarske, Zograf 21 (1990)
33 Papamastorakis, Ὁ διάκοσμος τοῡ τρούλου, 77.
34 Ε. Voordeckers, Examen codicologique du Codex Par. gr. 1242,
Scriptorium 21 (1967) 288–294; V. Djurić, Les miniatures du manus-
crit Parisinus Graecus 1242 et le Hésychasme, in: L’art de Thessaloni-
que et des pays balqaniques et les courants spiritueles au XIVe siecle.
Recueil des rapports du IVe colloque serbo-grec (Belgrade 1985), Bel-
grade 1987, 90.
35 V. Lazarev, Storia della pittura bizantina, Torino 1967, fig. 542;
Djurić, op. cit., fig. 2.
36 Ch. Sotiropoulos, Νηπτικοὶ καὶ Πατέρες τῶν μέσων χρόνων,
Athens 1966, 163, f. 98β, vers. 1008–1010, 281.
37 Zarras, O κύκλος των εωθινών Ευαγγελίων, 81–82.
pates the influence of the hesychastic conceptions, which
are, as a rule, reflected in the art of the later Palaeologan
period, with the ornate rendering of the mandorla.
The III Eothinon reading (Μk. 16, 9–18) is the
source for the scene in which Christ rebukes the disciples
for the disbelief with which they greeted the words of the
Myrrh-bearers. It is only depicted at Staro Nagoričino
(1316–1318)38 (Fig. 5) and at Gračanica39 (1319–1321) (Fig.
6). In both depictions we find the same iconographic mo-
tif, with Christ on the right addressing the disciples on
the left, raising his right hand and holding a rolled-up
scroll in his left. This rare iconographic motif appeared
during the Palaeologan period as part of an extension of
the Eothina cycle, but the motif does not appear to have
survived into the post-Byzantine period.40
The depiction of Christ rebuking his disciples for
their lack of faith is found in only two churches, in which
the decoration was carried out by Michael Astrapas and
Eutychios and their workshop. This fact, together with
38 Todić, Staro Nagoričino, 110; idem, Serbian Medieval Painting,
39 Živković, Gračanica, sch. ΙΙΙ, 24.
40 In Hagia Triada at Pljevlja, Montenegro (1592) (S. Petković, The
Monastery of Saint Trinity near Pljevlja, Belgrade 1974, sch. on p.
167) the illustration of the III Eothinon includes the Appearance to
Mary Magdalene, the Appearance to Lukas and Kleopas on the way
to Emmaus and the last Appearance on the Mount in Galilee. The
same episodes are depicted and in the Monastery of Petra [S. Sdrolia,
Οι τοιχογραφίες του Καθολικού της Μονής Πέτρας (1625) και η ζω-
γραφική των ναών των Αγράφων τον 17ο αιώνα, Α–Β (unpub. PhD),
Ιoannina 2000, 217–218, fig. 118]. In the church of Panagia Chryse-
laiousa at Emba on Cyprus (A. and J. Stylianou, The Painted Church-
es of Cyprus, London 1985, 414, pl. 250) only the Noli me tangere is
Fig. 4. Čučer. The Appearance of Christ at the Mt. in Galilee.