Exogenous and endogenous glucocorticoids in rheumatic diseases.

Charité University Medicine Berlin and Berlin-Brandenburg Center of Regenerative Therapies, Berlin, Germany.
Arthritis & Rheumatology (Impact Factor: 7.48). 10/2010; 63(1):1-9. DOI: 10.1002/art.30070
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Glucocorticoids are widely used as anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents in many immune-mediated gastrointestinal diseases. However, a number of undesirable side effects may occur and dictate continuous surveillance and monitoring to prevent complications. Areas covered: This review of the English language literature identified on PubMed focuses on key aspects of glucocorticoid therapy in patients with gastrointestinal diseases, highlighting specific aspects of recognition and management of its secondary effects. Expert opinion: Long-term cohort studies as well as placebo- and sham-controlled trials have evaluated the clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of glucocorticoid therapy in many gastrointestinal diseases. Other immunosuppressive and biological therapies have made glucocorticoid therapy part of a broader arsenal of therapies. Newer compounds that carry less systemic toxicity and improved tolerability are increasingly used. For several gastrointestinal diseases, the role of the mucosal immunity is currently being explored and microscopic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa may have an important pathogenetic role. Glucocorticoid therapy, particularly with newer, safer compounds, may play an important new role in patients with altered motility and visceral hypersensitivity. The interplay of the gut microbiota and the host that contributes to the development of gut-associated lymphoid tissues and gut-specific immune responses will also undoubtedly be explored.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Safety 05/2014; 13(5):563-72. · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During acute systemic infectious disease, precisely regulated release of energy-rich substrates (glucose, free fatty acids, and amino acids) and auxiliary elements such as calcium/phosphorus from storage sites (fat tissue, muscle, liver, and bone) are highly important because these factors are needed by an energy-consuming immune system in a situation with little or no food/water intake (sickness behavior). This positively selected program for short-lived infectious diseases is similarly applied during chronic inflammatory diseases. This review presents the interaction of hormones and inflammation by focusing on energy storage/expenditure and volume regulation. Energy storage hormones are represented by insulin (glucose/lipid storage and growth-related processes), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) (muscle and bone growth), androgens (muscle and bone growth), vitamin D (bone growth), and osteocalcin (bone growth, support of insulin, and testosterone). Energy expenditure hormones are represented by cortisol (breakdown of liver glycogen/adipose tissue triglycerides/muscle protein, and gluconeogenesis; water retention), noradrenaline/adrenaline (breakdown of liver glycogen/adipose tissue triglycerides, and gluconeogenesis; water retention), growth hormone (glucogenic, lipolytic; has also growth-related aspects; water retention), thyroid gland hormones (increase metabolic effects of adrenaline/noradrenaline), and angiotensin II (induce insulin resistance and retain water). In chronic inflammatory diseases, a preponderance of energy expenditure pathways is switched on, leading to typical hormonal changes such as insulin/IGF-1 resistance, hypoandrogenemia, hypovitaminosis D, mild hypercortisolemia, and increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Though necessary during acute inflammation in the context of systemic infection or trauma, these long-standing changes contribute to increased mortality in chronic inflammatory diseases.
    Arthritis research & therapy 02/2014; 16(1):203. · 4.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pathological antibodies have been demonstrated to play a key role in type II immune hypersensitivity reactions, resulting in the destruction of healthy tissues and leading to considerable morbidity for the patient. Unfortunately, current treatments present significant iatrogenic risk while still falling short for many patients in achieving clinical remission. In the present work, we explored the capability of target cell membrane-coated nanoparticles to abrogate the effect of pathological antibodies in an effort to minimize disease burden, without the need for drug-based immune suppression. Inspired by antibody-driven pathology, we used intact RBC membranes stabilized by biodegradable polymeric nanoparticle cores to serve as an alternative target for pathological antibodies in an antibody-induced anemia disease model. Through both in vitro and in vivo studies, we demonstrated efficacy of RBC membrane-cloaked nanoparticles to bind and neutralize anti-RBC polyclonal IgG effectively, and thus preserve circulating RBCs.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 09/2014;