The efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine against influenza-associated acute otitis media in children.
ABSTRACT Acute otitis media (AOM) is a frequent complication of influenza in young children. Influenza vaccination is known to protect against AOM by preventing influenza illness. We sought to determine the efficacy of the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) against influenza-associated AOM compared with placebo and trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). LAIV is approved for eligible children aged ≥ 2 years in the United States and in several other countries.
AOM incidence data from 6 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials and 2 randomized, double-blind, TIV-controlled trials in children 6 to 83 months of age were pooled and analyzed.
A total of 290 cases of AOM were identified in 24,046 study subjects. LAIV efficacy against influenza-associated AOM was 85.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 78.3%-89.8%) compared with placebo and 54.0% (95% CI, 27.0%-71.7%) compared with TIV. Efficacy trended higher in those ≥ 24 months of age compared with those aged 6 to 23 months. In placebo-controlled trials, among children who acquired influenza despite vaccination, AOM was diagnosed in 10.3% of LAIV recipients and 16.8% of placebo recipients, representing a 38.2% (95% CI, 11.0%-58.2%) relative reduction in the development of AOM. In TIV-controlled studies, among subjects with breakthrough influenza illness, the proportions of LAIV and TIV recipients who developed AOM were similar.
Children receiving LAIV had a high level of protection against influenza-associated AOM when compared with placebo or TIV. This was most evident in children older than 2 years, for whom LAIV is indicated. LAIV recipients who contracted breakthrough influenza illness despite vaccination developed AOM at a significantly lower rate than did unvaccinated children who developed influenza.
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ABSTRACT: Purpose of review: Acute otitis media (AOM) occurs as a complication of viral upper respiratory tract infection (URI). Bacterial otopathogens and respiratory viruses interact and play important roles in AOM development. Better understanding of viral and bacterial interactions may lead to innovative ways to lessen the burden of this common childhood disease. Recent findings: There has been increasing evidence that AOM occurs during URI, even in the absence of nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization. Among the types of viruses associated with AOM, respiratory syncytial virus continues to be the most commonly detected. It is still unclear whether viral load plays an important role in AOM development, but symptomatic URI (as opposed to asymptomatic viral infection) is crucial. Widespread use of bacterial and viral vaccines in young children, including pneumococcal conjugate and influenza vaccines, has led to the reduction in otitis media-related health care use between 2001 and 2011. There has been no new vaccine against respiratory viruses other than influenza. Summary: Progress has been made towards reduction of the burden of AOM in the last decade. Success in reducing AOM incidence will rely mainly on prevention of nasopharyngeal otopathogen colonization, as well as reduction in the incidence of viral URI.Current Opinion in Pediatrics 02/2015; · 2.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common disease of childhood. AOM is most appropriately diagnosed by careful otoscopy with an understanding of clinical signs and symptoms. The distinction between AOM and chronic otitis media with effusion should be emphasized. Treatment should include pain management, and initial antibiotic treatment should be given to those most likely to benefit, including young children, children with severe symptoms, and those with otorrhea and/or bilateral AOM. Tympanostomy tube placement may be helpful for those who experience frequent episodes of AOM or fail medical therapy. Recent practice guidelines may assist the clinician with such decisions.Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America 10/2014; · 1.34 Impact Factor
- mBio 04/2014; 5(3). · 6.88 Impact Factor