Evaluation of multidisciplinary simulation training on clinical performance and team behavior during tracheal intubation procedures in a pediatric intensive care unit
ABSTRACT Tracheal intubation in the pediatric intensive care unit is often performed in emergency situations with high risks. Simulation has been recognized as an effective methodology to train both technical and teamwork skills. Our objectives were to develop a feasible tool to evaluate team performance during tracheal intubation in the pediatric intensive care unit and to apply the tool in the clinical setting to determine whether multidisciplinary teams with a higher number of simulation-trained providers exhibit more proficient performance.
Prospective, observational pilot study.
Single tertiary children's hospital pediatric intensive care unit.
Pediatric and emergency medicine residents, pediatric intensive care unit nurses, and respiratory therapists from October 2007 to June 2008.
A pediatric intensive care unit on-call resident, a pediatric intensive care unit nurse, and a respiratory therapist received simulation-based multidisciplinary airway management training every morning. An assessment tool for team technical and behavioral skills was developed. Independent trained observers rated actual intubations in the pediatric intensive care unit by using this tool.
For observer training, two independent raters (research assistants 1 and 2) evaluated a total of 53 training sessions (research assistant 1, 16; research assistant 2, 37). The correlation coefficient with the facilitator expert (surrogate standard) was .73 for research assistant 1 and .88 for research assistant 2 (p ≤ .001 for both) in the total score, .84 for research assistant 1 and .77 for research assistant 2 (p < .001 for both) in the technical domain, and .63 for research assistant 1 (p = .009) and .84 for research assistant 2 (p < .001) in the behavioral domain. The correlation coefficient was lower in video-based observation (.62 vs. .88, on-site). For clinical observation, 15 intubations were observed in real time by raters. The performance by a team with two or more simulation-trained members was rated higher compared with the team with fewer than two trained members (total score: 127 ± 6 vs. 116 ± 9, p = .012, mean ± sd).
It is feasible to rate the technical and behavioral performance of multidisciplinary airway management teams during real intensive care unit intubation events by using our assessment tool. The presence of two or more multidisciplinary simulation-trained providers is associated with improved performance during real events.
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ABSTRACT: Providing appropriate training of procedural skills to residents while ensuring patient safety through trainee supervision is a difficult and constant challenge. We sought to determine how effective and safe procedural skill acquisition is in French ICUs and to identify failure and complication risk factors. Multicenter prospective observational study. Invasive procedures performed by residents were recorded during two consecutive semesters. Eighty-four residents. Eighty-four residents. None. Number of invasive procedures performed, failure and complication rates, supervision, and assistance provided. Five thousand six hundred seventeen procedures were prospectively studied: 1,007 tracheal intubations, 1,272 arterial and 2,586 central venous catheter insertions, 457 fiberoptic bronchoscopies, and 295 chest tube insertions. During the semesters, residents performed a median of 10 intubations, 14 arterial catheter insertions, and 26 central venous catheter insertions. Complication rates were low, similar to those in the literature: 8.6% desaturation and 7.4% esophageal placement during intubation; 0.4% and 2.3% pneumothorax with jugular and subclavian central venous catheter insertions, respectively. We identified risk factors for failure and complications. Higher rates of failure and complications for intubation were associated with residents with no or little previous experience (p < 0.001); failure of internal jugular vein catheterization was associated with left-side insertion (p = 0.005) and absence of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.007). Supervision and assistance were more frequent at the beginning of the semester and for intubation and chest tube insertion. Finally, residents had less access to fiberoptic bronchoscopy and chest tube insertion. Procedural skills acquisition by residents in the ICU appears feasible and safe with complication rates comparable to what has previously been reported. We identified specific procedures and situations associated with higher failure and complication rates that could require proactive training. Questions still remain regarding minimal numbers of procedures to attain competence and how best to provide procedural training.Critical care medicine 11/2013; 42(4). DOI:10.1097/CCM.0000000000000049 · 6.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Simulation allows the training of life-support procedures without patient risk. We analyzed the performance and usefulness of a new device that makes feasible the external control of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) machines in order to realistically generate clinical conditions and problems in simulated patients. A simple mechanical device was designed according to training needs and then hand made. This device permits the control of all monitorable pressures and therefore allows simulation of a range of clinical situations and eventual complications that might occur in real patients. We tested its performance in vitro and then during 16 high-fidelity patient-simulation scenarios included in the program of pediatric CRRT courses. Student and teacher satisfaction was assessed through an anonymous survey. Quick, accurate, real-time monitor of pressure changes, concordant with the usual clinical problems to be simulated (catheter complications, filter coagulation, inadequate CRRT device settings), were easily achieved with the new device. Instructors rated the device as user friendly and well adapted to the reality being simulated. During scenarios, students were not aware of the simulator and considered that simulated clinical conditions were realistic. Our device may be very useful for training healthcare professionals in CRRT management, thus avoiding risk to patients.Journal of Artificial Organs 11/2013; DOI:10.1007/s10047-013-0743-z · 1.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent evidence shows poor retention of Pediatric Advanced Life Support provider skills. Frequent refresher training and in situ simulation are promising interventions. We developed a "Pediatric Advanced Life Support-reconstructed" recertification course by deconstructing the training into six 30-minute in situ simulation scenario sessions delivered over 6 months. We hypothesized that in situ Pediatric Advanced Life Support-reconstructed implementation is feasible and as effective as standard Pediatric Advanced Life Support recertification. A prospective randomized, single-blinded trial. Single-center, large, tertiary PICU in a university-affiliated children's hospital. Nurses and respiratory therapists in PICU. Simulation-based modular Pediatric Advanced Life Support recertification training. Simulation-based pre- and postassessment sessions were conducted to evaluate participants' performance. Video-recorded sessions were rated by trained raters blinded to allocation. The primary outcome was skill performance measured by a validated Clinical Performance Tool, and secondary outcome was behavioral performance measured by a Behavioral Assessment Tool. A mixed-effect model was used to account for baseline differences. Forty participants were prospectively randomized to Pediatric Advanced Life Support reconstructed versus standard Pediatric Advanced Life Support with no significant difference in demographics. Clinical Performance Tool score was similar at baseline in both groups and improved after Pediatric Advanced Life Support reconstructed (pre, 16.3 ± 4.1 vs post, 22.4 ± 3.9; p < 0.001), but not after standard Pediatric Advanced Life Support (pre, 14.3 ± 4.7 vs post, 14.9 ± 4.4; p =0.59). Improvement of Clinical Performance Tool was significantly higher in Pediatric Advanced Life Support reconstructed compared with standard Pediatric Advanced Life Support (p = 0.006). Behavioral Assessment Tool improved in both groups: Pediatric Advanced Life Support reconstructed (pre, 33.3 ± 4.5 vs post, 35.9 ± 5.0; p = 0.008) and standard Pediatric Advanced Life Support (pre, 30.5 ± 4.7 vs post, 33.6 ± 4.9; p = 0.02), with no significant difference of improvement between both groups (p = 0.49). For PICU-based nurses and respiratory therapists, simulation-based "Pediatric Advanced Life Support-reconstructed" in situ training is feasible and more effective than standard Pediatric Advanced Life Support recertification training for skill performance. Both Pediatric Advanced Life Support recertification training courses improved behavioral performance.Critical care medicine 11/2013; DOI:10.1097/CCM.0000000000000024 · 6.15 Impact Factor