Article

Thymic recovery after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with non-myeloablative conditioning is limited to patients younger than 60 years of age

University of Liège, Department of Hematology, CHU Sart-Tilman, 4000 Liège, Belgium.
Haematologica (Impact Factor: 5.87). 10/2010; 96(2):298-306. DOI: 10.3324/haematol.2010.029702
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Long-term immune recovery in older patients given hematopoietic cell transplantation after non-myeloablative conditioning remains poorly understood. This prompted us to investigate long-term lymphocyte reconstitution and thymic function in 80 patients given allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells after non-myeloablative conditioning.
Median age at transplant was 57 years (range 10-71). Conditioning regimen consisted of 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) with (n=46) or without (n=20) added fludarabine, 4 Gy TBI with fludarabine (n=6), or cyclophosphamide plus fludarabine (n=8). Stem cell sources were unmanipulated (n=56), CD8-depleted (n=19), or CD34-selected (n=5) peripheral blood stem cells. Immune recovery was assessed by signal-joint T-cell receptor excision circle quantification and flow cytometry.
Signal-joint T-cell receptor excision circle levels increased from day 100 to one and two years after transplantation in patients under 50 years of age (n=23; P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively), and in those aged 51-60 years (n=35; P=0.17 and P=0.06, respectively), but not in patients aged over 60 (n=22; P=0.3 and P=0.3, respectively). Similarly, CD4(+)CD45RA(+) (naïve) T-cell counts increased from day 100 to one and two years after transplantation in patients aged 50 years and under 50 (P=0.002 and P=0.02, respectively), and in those aged 51-60 (P=0.4 and P=0.001, respectively), but less so in patients aged over 60 (P=0.3 and P=0.06, respectively). In multivariate analyses, older patient age (P<0.001), extensive chronic GVHD (P<0.001), and prior (resolved) extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (P=0.008) were associated with low signal-joint T-cell receptor excision circle levels one year or more after HCT.
In summary, our data suggest that thymic neo-generation of T cells occurred from day 100 onwards in patients under 60 while signal-joint T-cell receptor excision circle levels remained low for patients aged over 60. Further, chronic graft-versus-host disease had a dramatic impact on thymic function, as observed previously in patients given grafts after myeloablative conditioning.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Vincent Geenen, Sep 02, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
102 Views
 · 
10 Downloads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Haematologica 2011 [Epub ahead of print] Citation: Wils EJ, van der Holt B, Broers AE, Posthumus-van Sluijs SJ, Gratama JW, Braakman E, and Cornelissen JJ. Insufficient recovery of thymopoiesis predicts for opportunistic infection in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. Haematologica. 2011; 96:xxx doi:10.3324/haematol.2011.047696 Publisher's Disclaimer. E-publishing ahead of print is increasingly important for the rapid dissemination of science. Haematologica is, therefore, E-publishing PDF files of an early version of manuscripts that have completed a regular peer review and have been accepted for publication. E-publishing of this PDF file has been approved by the authors. After having E-published Ahead of Print, manuscripts will then undergo technical and English editing, typesetting, proof correction and be presented for the authors' final approval; the final version of the manuscript will then appear in print on a regular issue of the journal. All legal disclaimers that apply to the journal also pertain to this production process. Haematologica (pISSN: 0390-6078, eISSN: 1592-8721, NLM ID: 0417435, www.haemato-logica.org) publishes peer-reviewed papers across all areas of experimental and clinical hematology. The journal is owned by the Ferrata Storti Foundation, a non-profit organiza-tion, and serves the scientific community with strict adherence to the principles of open access publishing (www.doaj.org). In addition, the journal makes every paper published immediately available in PubMed Central (PMC), the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Before being able to react against infectious non-self-antigens, the immune system has to be educated in recognition and tolerance of neuroendocrine self-proteins. This sophisticated educational process takes place only in the thymus. The development of an autoimmune response directed to neuroendocrine glands has been shown to result from a thymus dysfunction in programming immunological self-tolerance to neuroendocrine-related antigens. This thymus dysfunction leads to a breakdown of immune homeostasis with an enrichment of 'forbidden' self-reactive T cells and a deficiency in self-antigen-specific natural regulatory T cells in the peripheral T lymphocyte repertoire. A large number of neuroendocrine self-antigens are expressed by the thymic epithelium, under the control of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene/protein in the medulla. Based on the close homology and cross-tolerance between thymic type 1 diabetes-related self-antigens and peripheral antigens targeted in β-cells by autoimmunity, a novel type of vaccination is currently developed for the prevention and cure of type 1 diabetes. If this approach were found to be effective in reprogramming immunological tolerance that is absent or broken in this disease, it could pave the way for the design of negative/tolerogenic self-vaccines against other endocrine and organ-specific autoimmune disorders.
    NeuroImmunoModulation 01/2011; 18(5):314-9. DOI:10.1159/000329498 · 1.78 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cytoreductive conditioning regimens used in the context of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) elicit deficits in innate and adaptive immunity, which predispose patients to infections. As such, transplantation outcomes depend vitally on the successful reconstruction of immune competence. Restoration of a normal peripheral T-cell pool after HCT is a slow process that requires the de novo production of naive T cells in a functionally competent thymus. However, there are several challenges to this regenerative process. Most notably, advanced age, the cytotoxic pretransplantation conditioning, and posttransplantation alloreactivity are risk factors for T-cell immune deficiency as they independently interfere with normal thymus function. Here, we discuss preclinical allogeneic HCT models and clinical observations that have contributed to a better understanding of the transplant-related thymic dysfunction. The identification of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control regular thymopoiesis but are altered in HCT patients is expected to provide the basis for new therapies that improve the regeneration of the adaptive immune system, especially with functionally competent, naive T cells.
    Blood 03/2011; 117(25):6768-76. DOI:10.1182/blood-2011-02-334623 · 10.43 Impact Factor
Show more