In vitro and in vivo characterization of SGI-1252, a small molecule inhibitor of JAK2.
ABSTRACT Constitutive activation of the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) due to a somatic mutation (JAK2(V617F)) arising in hematopoietic stem cells plays a central role in the pathophysiology of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). To investigate the hypothesis that drugs that inhibit JAK2 have therapeutic potential, we developed a small molecule inhibitor, SGI-1252, that targets the adenosine triphosphate-binding and solvent pocket of the protein.
Established cells lines each expressing different JAK2(V617F) copy numbers, a cell line transfected with wild-type and mutant JAK2, ex vivo expanded erythroid progenitor cells from patients with MPNs, and a murine xenograft model were used to characterize the activity of SGI-1252.
In vitro studies showed that SGI-1252 potently inhibits the kinase activity of wild-type JAK2, JAK2(V617F) and JAK1, but not JAK3. SGI-1252 blocked phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 5, a downstream target of JAK2 and inhibited expression of the JAK2-dependent antiapoptotic gene BCL-X(L). Additional studies confirmed induction of apoptosis in JAK2(V617F)-positive cell lines by SGI-1252. Moreover, cell lines transfected with either wild-type JAK2 or JAK2(V617F) were equally susceptible to the antiproliferative effects of SGI-1252 and the antiproliferative activity of SGI-1252 toward ex vivo--expanded erythroid progenitors from patients with polycythemia vera and primary myelofibrosis appeared independent of the JAK2(V617F) allele burden. Pharmacodynamic studies in a murine xenograft model demonstrated both anti-tumor activity and inhibition of signal transducers and activators of transcription 5 phosphorylation by SGI-1252, and the drug was active and well-tolerated whether delivered intraperitoneally or orally.
Together, these studies support further development of SGI-1252 for clinical use.
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ABSTRACT: Janus Kinase 2 (JAK 2) gene single point mutations, which have been reported to be associated with myeloproliferative disorders, are usually detected through conventional methods such as melting curve assays, allele-specific and quantitative Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR). Herein, an electrochemical biosensor for the detection of a Guanine (G) to Thymine (T) transversion at nucleotide position 1849 of the JAK2 gene was reported. Due to clinical importance of this mutation, easy and sensitive tests are needed to be developed. Our aim was to design a biosensor system that is capable of detect the mutation within less than 1hour with high sensitivity. For these purposes, an electrochemical sensing system was developed based on detecting hybridization. Hybridization between probe and its target and discrimination of single point mutation was investigated by monitoring guanine oxidation signals observed at +1.0V with Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) by using synthetic oligonucleotides and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplicons. Hybridization between probe and PCR amplicons was also determined with Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). We successfully detect hybridization first in synthetic samples, and ultimately in real samples involving blood samples from patients as well as additional healthy controls. The limit of detection (S/N=3) was calculated as 44 picomole of target sequence in a 40-μL reaction volume in real samples.Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 12/2013; · 2.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Protein kinases are fundamental components of diverse signaling pathways, including immune cells. Their essential functions have made them effective therapeutic targets. Initially, the expectation was that a high degree of selectivity would be critical; however, with time, the use of "multikinase" inhibitors has expanded. Moreover, the spectrum of diseases in which kinase inhibitors are used has also expanded to include not only malignancies but also immune-mediated diseases. At present, thirteen kinase inhibitors have been approved in the United States, all for oncologic indications. However, there are a growing number of molecules, including several Janus kinase inhibitors, that are being tested in clinical trials for autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and inflammatory bowel diseases. It appears likely that this new class of immunomodulatory drugs will have a major impact on the treatment of immune-mediated diseases in the near future.F1000 Medicine Reports 01/2012; 4:5.
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ABSTRACT: We identified an essential cell wall biosynthetic enzyme in Bacillus anthracis and an inhibitor thereof to which the organism did not spontaneously evolve measurable resistance. This work is based on the exquisite binding specificity of bacteriophage-encoded cell wall-hydrolytic lysins, which have evolved to recognize critical receptors within the bacterial cell wall. Focusing on the B. anthracis-specific PlyG lysin, we first identified its unique cell wall receptor and cognate biosynthetic pathway. Within this pathway, one biosynthetic enzyme, 2-epimerase, was required for both PlyG receptor expression and bacterial growth. The 2-epimerase was used to design a small-molecule inhibitor, epimerox. Epimerox prevented growth of several Gram-positive pathogens and rescued mice challenged with lethal doses of B. anthracis. Importantly, resistance to epimerox was not detected (<10(-11) frequency) in B. anthracis and S. aureus. These results describe the use of phage lysins to identify promising lead molecules with reduced resistance potential for antimicrobial development.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e60754. · 3.73 Impact Factor