Beta3-adrenergic receptors in cardiac and vascular tissues emerging concepts and therapeutic perspectives.
ABSTRACT Catecholamines released by the orthosympathetic system play a major role in the short- and long-term regulation of cardiovascular function. Beta1- and beta2-adrenoreceptors (ARs) have classically been considered as mediating most of their effects on cardiac contraction. After their initial cloning and pharmacologic characterization in the late 1980s, beta3-ARs have been mostly thought of as receptors mediating metabolic effects (e.g., lipolysis) in adipocytes. However, definitive evidence for their expression and functional coupling in cardiovascular tissues (including in humans) has recently initiated a re-examination of their implication in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. Distinctive pharmacodynamic properties of beta3-AR, e.g., their upregulation in disease and resistance to desensitization, suggest that they may be attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. They may substitute efficient vasodilating pathways when beta1/2-ARs are inoperative. In the heart, their contractile effects, which are functionally antipathetic to those of beta1/2-AR, may protect the myocardium against adverse effects of excessive catecholamine stimulation and perhaps mediate additional ancillary effects on key aspects of electrophysiology or remodeling. Longitudinal studies in animals and patients with different stages of heart failure are now needed to identify the optimal therapeutic scheme using specific combinations of agonists or antagonists at all three beta-ARs.
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ABSTRACT: β-adrenergic signaling is thought to facilitate cancer progression and blockade of β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) may slow down tumor growth. A possible role of β3-ARs in tumor growth has not been investigated so far and the lack of highly specific antagonists makes difficult the evaluation of this role. In the present study, β3-AR expression in mouse B16F10 melanoma cells was demonstrated and the effects of two widely used β3-AR blockers, SR59230A and L-748,337, were evaluated in comparison with propranolol, a β1-/β2-AR blocker with poor affinity for β3-ARs, and with siRNAs targeting specific β-ARs. Both SR59230A and L-748,337 reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis, likely through the involvement of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase. In addition, hypoxia upregulated β3-ARs and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in B16F10 cells, whereas SR59230A or L-748,337 prevented the hypoxia-induced VEGF upregulation. Melanoma was induced in mice by inoculation of B16F10 cells. Intra-tumor injections of SR59230A or L-748,337 significantly reduced melanoma growth by reducing cell proliferation and stimulating apoptosis. SR59230A or L-748,337 treatment also resulted in significant decrease of the tumor vasculature. The decrease in tumor vasculature was due to apoptosis of endothelial cells and not to downregulation of angiogenic factors. These results demonstrate that SR59230A and L-748,337 significantly inhibit melanoma growth by reducing tumor cell proliferation and activating tumor cell death. In addition, both drugs reduce tumor vascularization by inducing apoptosis of endothelial cells. Together, these findings indicate β3-ARs as promising, novel targets for anti-cancer therapy. β3-ARs are expressed in B16F10 melanoma cells β3-ARs are involved in B16F10 cell proliferation and apoptosis Reduced β3-AR function decreases the growth of melanoma induced by B16F10 cell inoculation Drugs targeting β3-ARs reduce tumor vasculature β3-ARs can be regarded as promising, novel targets for anti-cancer therapy.Journal of Molecular Medicine 08/2013; · 4.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To assess the cardiac response to low (0.15-0.5 mg/kg i.p.) and high (1.5-20 mg/kg i.p.) doses of dobutamine in Tgαq*44 mice with dilated cardiomyopathy at the stage of advanced heart failure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Inotropic, lusitropic, and chronotropic response to β(1) -adrenergic stimulation was assessed by the cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol based on the electrocardiogram (ECG)-triggered bright-blood images of one midventricular short-axis slice. RESULTS: In wildtype mice increasing doses of dobutamine resulted in subsequent increase in the left ventricular function and heart rate acceleration, but significant inotropic, lusitropic, and chronotropic cardiac response was observed only after high doses of dobutamine, what is typical. In the Tgαq*44 mice low doses of dobutamine significantly increased inotropic and lusitropic cardiac performance without chronotropic changes. An increased heart rate was observed only after high doses of dobutamine, but then inotropic and lusitropic cardiac functional reserve was lost. CONCLUSION: We described MRI stress test protocol based on a low and high dose of dobutamine induced response that proves useful in revealing alternation in cardiac function in mice with heart failure. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2012;. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 11/2012; · 2.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Beta-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) play a role in angiogenic processes that characterize neovascularization-associated retinal diseases, but the role of β3-ARs has not been disclosed yet. We used ex vivo retinal explants to investigate the role of β3-ARs in regulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release associated with hypoxia. Whether nitric oxide (NO) mediates β3-AR regulation of VEGF release was also investigated. β3-AR activation was obtained using BRL 37344, whereas SR59230A, L-748,337, or specific siRNAs were used to block β3-ARs. Pharmacological approaches were used to interfere with the NO pathway. Western blot was used to determine β-AR levels. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure VEGF release. NO production was assessed by a colorimetric assay. We found that hypoxia upregulates β3-ARs. In addition, we observed that β3-AR activation with BRL 37344 increases VEGF release in response to hypoxia. Either β3-AR blocker or β3-AR silencing downregulates drastically hypoxic levels of VEGF. With experiments using NO synthase (NOS) blockade with L-NAME, NOS activation with fluvastatin or NO supplementation with SNAP, we demonstrated that β3-ARs and VEGF are functionally coupled via the NO pathway. In summary, the data presented here support the assumption that β3-ARs are involved in the regulation of angiogenic responses to hypoxia through the NO signalling, a key pathway in hypoxic/ischemic diseases. Although extrapolation of these data to the human situation is difficult, these findings may help to explore the possible role of β3-ARs in vascularization-associated disorders.Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 01/2013; · 2.15 Impact Factor