Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for portal vein thrombosis with symptomatic portal hypertension in liver cirrhosis.
ABSTRACT Data on the management of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in patients with decompensated cirrhosis are extremely limited, particularly in the cases of the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). We assessed the outcome of TIPS for PVT in patients with cirrhosis and symptomatic portal hypertension and determined the predictors of technical success and survival.
In the retrospective study, 57 consecutive patients receiving TIPS were enrolled between December 2001 and September 2008. All were diagnosed with chronic PVT, and 30 had portal cavernoma. Indications for TIPS were variceal hemorrhage (n = 56) and refractory ascites (n = 1).
TIPS were successfully placed in 75% of patients (43/57). The independent predictors of technical success included portal cavernoma, and the degree of thrombosis within the main portal vein (MPV), the portal vein branches, and the superior mesenteric vein. Only one patient died of severe procedure-related complication. The cumulative 1-year shunt dysfunction and hepatic encephalopathy rates were 21% and 25%, respectively. The cumulative 1- and 5-year variceal re-bleeding rates differed significantly between the TIPS success and failure groups (10% and 28% versus 43% and 100%, respectively; p = 0.0004), while the cumulative 1- and 5-year survival rates were similar between the two groups (86% and 77% versus 78% and 62%, respectively; p = 0.34). The independent predictor of survival in PVT patients with decompensated cirrhosis was the degree of MPV occlusion (hazard ratio 0.189, 95% CI 0.042-0.848).
TIPS should be considered a safe and feasible alternative therapy for chronic PVT in selected patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Both technical success and survival were closely associated with the degree of MPV occlusion.
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ABSTRACT: The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) represents a major advance in the treatment of complications of portal hypertension. Technical improvements and increased experience over the past 24 years led to improved clinical results and a better definition of the indications for TIPS. Randomized clinical trials indicate that the TIPS procedure is not a first-line therapy for variceal bleeding, but can be used when medical treatment fails, both in the acute situation or to prevent variceal rebleeding. The role of TIPS to treat refractory ascites is probably more justified to improve the quality of life rather than to improve survival, except for patients with preserved liver function. It can be helpful for hepatic hydrothorax and can reverse hepatorenal syndrome in selected cases. It is a good treatment for Budd Chiari syndrome uncontrollable by medical treatment. Careful selection of patients is mandatory before TIPS, and clinical followup is essential to detect and treat complications that may result from TIPS stenosis (which can be prevented by using covered stents) and chronic encephalopathy (which may in severe cases justify reduction or occlusion of the shunt). A multidisciplinary approach, including the resources for liver transplantation, is always required to treat these patients.International journal of hepatology. 01/2012; 2012:167868.
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ABSTRACT: The presence of occlusive portal vein thrombosis (PVT) greatly changes the natural history of liver cirrhosis, because it not only significantly increases the incidence of variceal rebleeding but also negatively influences the survival. However, due to the absence of strong evidence, no standard treatment algorithm for the secondary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients with non-tumoral PVT has been established. Previous randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) can significantly decrease the incidence of variceal rebleeding in cirrhotic patients without PVT, compared with conservative therapy (i.e., endoscopic plus pharmacological therapy). Further, several large cohort studies have confirmed that TIPS can effectively prevent variceal rebleeding in cirrhotic patients with non-tumoral PVT. On the other hand, TIPS can facilitate recanalizing the thrombosed portal vein by endovascular manipulations, even in the presence of cavernous transformation of the portal vein (CTPV). More importantly, successful TIPS insertions can maintain the persistent portal vein patency, and avoid thrombus extension into the portal venous system. By comparison, anticoagulation therapy can achieve portal vein recanalization only in patients with partial PVT, but not in those with occlusive PVT or CTPV, and the use of anticoagulants may aggravate the risk of variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients with a history of variceal bleeding. Collectively, we hypothesize that TIPS may be superior to conservative therapy for the prevention of variceal rebleeding in cirrhotic patients with non-tumoral PVT. Randomized controlled trials should be conducted to evaluate the survival benefit of TIPS in these patients.Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 08/2012; 18(8):HY37-41. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine the safety and efficacy of anticoagulation treatment for portal vein thrombosis in cirrhosis patients with acute variceal bleeding, with patient eligibility determined by contrast ultrasonography findings. This prospective study included 23 consecutive cirrhosis patients (63.8 ± 11.8 years old, 12 males and 11 females) with emergency admission for acute variceal bleeding with or without portal vein thrombus. Eligibility for anticoagulation treatment was determined by positive intra-thrombus enhancement on contrast ultrasonography (perflubutane microbubble agent, 0.0075 mL/kg) performed before endoscopy. Low-molecular-weight heparin was administered after hemostasis was achieved by band ligation. Repeated band ligation or injection sclerotherapy combined with argon plasma coagulation was performed for variceal disappearance. Hemostasis was achieved in all 10 patients with active bleeding. Five of these patients had portal vein thrombus, and all showed positive intra-thrombus enhancement on contrast ultrasonography. Anticoagulation treatment of these five patients resulted in complete recanalization of the portal vein within 2-11 days. There were no significant differences in the number of endoscopic treatment sessions or the length of hospital stay between the groups with and without thrombosis, and no complications including rebleeding were reported. Long term, none of the patients who continued oral anticoagulation treatment had recurrence of thrombosis (4/5). Variceal recurrence occurred only in the non-thrombosis group (2/18) during the follow-up period (median: 351 days). Early anticoagulation treatment in cirrhosis patients with portal vein thrombosis and acute variceal bleeding may be safe, tolerated, and effective in cases with positive intra-thrombus enhancement on contrast ultrasonography.Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology 04/2012; 47(6):686-91. · 2.08 Impact Factor