Expansion of antiretroviral treatment to rural health centre level by a mobile service in Mumbwa district, Zambia

Mumbwa District Health Office, Mumbwa, Zambia.
Bulletin of the World Health Organisation (Impact Factor: 5.11). 10/2010; 88(10):788-91. DOI: 10.2471/BLT.09.063982
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Despite the Government's effort to expand services to district level, it is still hard for people living with HIV to access antiretroviral treatment (ART) in rural Zambia. Strong demands for expanding ART services at the rural health centre level face challenges of resource shortages.
The Mumbwa district health management team introduced mobile ART services using human resources and technical support from district hospitals, and community involvement at four rural health centres in the first quarter of 2007. This paper discusses the uptake of the mobile ART services in rural Mumbwa.
Mumbwa is a rural district with an area of 23 000 km² and a population of 167 000. Before the introduction of mobile services, ART services were provided only at Mumbwa District Hospital.
The mobile services improved accessibility to ART, especially for clients in better functional status, i.e. still able to work. In addition, these mobile services may reduce the number of cases "lost to follow-up". This might be due to the closer involvement of the community and the better support offered by these services to rural clients.
These mobile ART services helped expand services to rural health facilities where resources are limited, bringing them as close as possible to where clients live.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To describe patient antiretroviral therapy (cART) outcomes associated with intensive decentralization of services in a rural HIV program in Malawi. Longitudinal analysis of data from HIV-infected patients starting cART between August 2001 and December 2008 and of a cross-sectional immunovirological assessment conducted 12 (±2) months after therapy start. One-year mortality, lost to follow-up, and attrition (deaths and lost to follow-up) rates were estimated with exact Poisson 95% confidence intervals (CI) by type of care delivery and year of initiation. Association of virological suppression (<50 copies/mL) and immunological success (CD4 gain ≥100 cells/µL), with type of care was investigated using multiple logistic regression. During the study period, 4322 cART patients received centralized care and 11,090 decentralized care. At therapy start, patients treated in decentralized health facilities had higher median CD4 count levels (167 vs. 130 cell/µL, P<0.0001) than other patients. Two years after cART start, program attrition was lower in decentralized than centralized facilities (9.9 per 100 person-years, 95% CI: 9.5-10.4 vs. 20.8 per 100 person-years, 95% CI: 19.7-22.0). One year after treatment start, differences in immunological success (adjusted OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 0.83-1.83), and viral suppression (adjusted OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.56-1.14) between patients followed at centralized and decentralized facilities were not statistically significant. In rural Malawi, 1- and 2-year program attrition was lower in decentralized than in centralized health facilities and no statistically significant differences in one-year immunovirological outcomes were observed between the two health care levels. Longer follow-up is needed to confirm these results.
    PLoS ONE 10/2012; 7(10):e38044. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0038044 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to compare accessibility of vision-impaired (VI) patients to other eyecare centres before attending the mobile and stationary hospitals. Under a cross-sectional study design, VI patients were consecutively enrolled if they visited one of the three Impact Foundation Hospitals--one mobile and two stationary hospitals. The cost and service output of all hospitals were also reviewed; 27.7% of patients at the mobile and 36.8% at the two stationary hospitals had sought eyecare at other health facilities in the past. Mobile hospital patients lived closer to the hospital but spent more time in travelling, bore less direct cost, needed less extra support, and had a higher level of satisfaction on the service. They also identified more barriers to access eyecare in the past. The mobile hospital had a higher percentage of patients with accessibility problems and should continue to help the remote population in overcoming these problems.
    Journal of Health Population and Nutrition 06/2013; 31(2):223-30. DOI:10.3329/jhpn.v31i2.16387 · 1.39 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A mobile health unit may be useful to follow up adult and pediatric patients on antiretroviral treatment and living in remote areas devoid of laboratory facilities. The study evaluated the use of the simplified, robust, single-plateform, volumetric, pan-leucogating Auto40 flow cytometer (Apogee Flow Systems Ltd, Hemel Hempstead, UK) for CD4 T cell numeration in a mobile unit, compared against a reference flow cytometry method. The therapeutic mobile unit of the Laboratoire National de Santé Hygiène Mobile, Yaoundé, Cameroon, was equipped with the Auto40. A FACSCalibur flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson Immuno-cytometry System, San Jose, CA, USA) was used as reference method. EDTA-blood samples from volunteers were first subjected to CD4 T cell count in the mobile unit, and an aliquot was sent within 4 hours to Centre International de Référence Chantal Biya, Yaoundé, for FACSCalibur assay. Two HIV screening campaigns with the mobile unit were organised in December 2009 and January 2010. The campaign in the suburb of Yaoundé which was 20 km from the reference laboratory included 188 volunteers comprising 93 children less than 5 years old. The campaign in Ambang Bikok (53 km far from Yaoundé) included 69 adult volunteers. In Yaoundé suburb, mean ± standard deviation (SD) CD4 T cell count was 996 ± 874 cells/μl by Auto40, and 989 ± 883 cells/μl by FACSCalibur; in Ambang Bikok, mean ± SD CD4 T cell count was 1041 ± 317 cells/μl by Auto40, and 1032 ± 294 cells/μl by FACSCalibur. Results by Auto40 and FACSCalibur were highly correlated in Yaoundé (r(2) = 0.982) as in Ambang Bikok (r(2) = 0.921). Bland-Altman analysis showed a close agreement between Auto40 and FACSCalibur results expressed in absolute count as in percentage in Yaoundé and Ambang Bikok. When pooling the 257 CD4 T cell count measurements, the Auto40 yielded a mean difference of +7.6 CD4 T cells/μl higher than by reference flow cytometry; and the sensitivity and specificity of Auto40 in enumerating absolute CD4 T cell counts of less than 200 cells/μl were 87% and 99%, respectively, and in enumerating absolute CD4 T cell counts of less than 350 cells/μl were 87% and 98%, respectively. The intrarun and interun precisions of the Auto40 assay assessed in the mobile unit were 5.5% and 7.9%, respectively. The Auto40 flow cytometer installed in a therapeutic mobile unit and operated far from its reference laboratory gave a perfect correlation with the reference method, and could be useful in carrying out immunological monitoring of HIV-infected patients living in areas without access to laboratory facilities.
    Journal of Translational Medicine 02/2012; 10:22. DOI:10.1186/1479-5876-10-22 · 3.99 Impact Factor
    This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched format

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 1, 2014