Therapeutic implications of autophagy-mediated cell survival in gastrointestinal stromal tumor after treatment with imatinib mesylate

Department of Molecular Genetics, Cleveland Clinic, Lerner Research Institute, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland, OH, USA.
Autophagy (Impact Factor: 11.42). 11/2010; 6(8):1190-1. DOI: 10.4161/auto.6.8.13430
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical studies have indicated that the NV (nanovesicle) concentration in blood samples is a potential indicator of clinical status and can be used to follow the development of the disease. For 32 months, we monitored the effect of imatinib treatment on NV concentrations in blood samples from 12 patients with GIST (gastrointestinal stromal tumour). The NV concentration before the treatment increased with respect to control by a factor of 3.5 on average (range 2.6-9.2). The first week after initiation of the treatment, the NV concentration increased considerably, by a factor of 13 on average (range 5.9-21.2), whereas on average, after 1 month, it decreased to the level of the control and remained at that level for at least 1.5 years. Recent assessment (after 2.5 years) showed a somewhat increased NV concentration, by a factor of 2 on average (range 0.7-3.9). Low NV concentrations in blood samples during the treatment reflect a favourable effect of imatinib in these patients and no remission of the disease was hitherto observed.
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    ABSTRACT: The development of metastasis is the major cause of death in cancer patients. In certain instances, this occurs shortly after primary tumor detection and treatment, indicating these lesions were already expanding at the moment of diagnosis or initiated exponential growth shortly after. However, in many types of cancer, patients succumb to metastatic disease years and sometimes decades after being treated for a primary tumor. This has led to the notion that in these patients residual disease may remain in a dormant state. Tumor cell dormancy is a poorly understood phase of cancer progression and only recently have its underlying molecular mechanisms started to be revealed. Important questions that remain to be elucidated include not only which mechanisms prevent residual disease from proliferating but also which mechanisms critically maintain the long-term survival of these disseminated residual cells. Herein, we review recent evidence in support of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms driving dormancy. We also explore how therapy may cause the onset of dormancy in the surviving fraction of cells after treatment and how autophagy may be a mechanism that maintains the residual cells that are viable for prolonged periods.
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    ABSTRACT: Imatinib is a principal therapeutic agent for targeting colorectal tumours. However, mono-targeting by imatinib does not always achieve complete cancer eradication. Selenite, a well-known chemopreventive agent, is commonly used in cancer patients. In the current study, we aimed to explore whether selenite can modulate imatinib cytotoxicity in colorectal cancer cells. HCT116 cells were treated with different concentrations of imatinib and/or selenite for 24, 48 and 72 hr. Imatinib-selenite interaction was analysed using isobologram equation. As indicators of apoptosis, DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activity, Bcl-2 expression were explored. Autophagic machinery was also checked by visualizing acidic vesicular organelles and measuring Beclin-1 expression. Furthermore, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species were also examined. The present study demonstrated that selenite synergistically augmented imatinib cytotoxicity in HCT116 cells as evidenced by combination and dose reduction indices. Supranutritional dose of selenite when combined with imatinib induced apoptotic machinery by decreasing Bcl-2 expression, increasing caspase-3 activity and subsequently fragmenting DNA and blunted cytoprotective autophagy by decreasing Beclin-1 expression and autophagosomes formation. Moreover, their combination induced cell cycle S phase block, increased total thiol content and reduced nitric oxide levels. In conclusion, selenite synergizes imatinib cytotoxicity through multi-barrelled molecular targeting, providing a novel therapeutic approach for colorectal cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 06/2014; 116(1). DOI:10.1111/bcpt.12281 · 2.29 Impact Factor