Secretase-Independent and RhoGTPase/PAK/ERK-Dependent Regulation of Cytoskeleton Dynamics in Astrocytes by NSAIDs and Derivatives
ABSTRACT Profens like ibuprofen, R-flurbiprofen, or CHF5074 are being considered for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease because epidemiological data indicates that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are protective against neurodegeneration. Rho-GTPases are small G proteins, including RhoA, Cdc42, and Rac1, which control cytoskeleton dynamics. Because ibuprofen promotes axon growth via RhoA in neurons, we examined whether profens modulate astrocyte plasticity via Rho-GTPases. We report that ibuprofen (100-500 μM), R-flurbiprofen (100-500 μM), and CHF5074 (10-30 μM) caused a concentration-dependent stellation of astrocytes in primary cultures, associated with the reorganization of GFAP and actin filaments. The stellation was independent of COX2, α-, β- or γ-secretase as judged by the lack of effect of inhibitors of these enzymes. RhoA, PAK, and Cdc42, but not Rac1, accounted for the profen-mediated stellation, as concluded from the joint analyses of activities and reversal experiments with adenoviral or pharmacological manipulations. Ibuprofen accelerated migration in a scratch-wound assay, while R-flurbiprofen had no effect and CHF5074 caused deceleration. Cell polarity regulation by Cdc42 and ERK1/2 may underlie the paradoxical effects of profens on migration. We conclude that profens regulate cytoskeleton dynamics in astrocytes via Rho-GTPases, PAK, and ERK1/2. Since migration is a hallmark of astrocyte response during inflammation we propose that, in addition to (or instead of) lowering amyloid-β42 via secretases, ibuprofen and its derivatives may prevent Alzheimer's disease instead of AD by modulating astrocyte reactivity through Rho-GTPase/PAK/ERK-dependent signaling.
SourceAvailable from: Bruno P. Imbimbo[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Amyloid precursor protein (APP) intracellular domain (AICD) is a product of APP processing with transcriptional modulation activity, whose overexpression causes various Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related dysfunctions. Here we report that 1-(3',4'-dichloro-2-fluoro[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)-cyclopropanecarboxylic acid) (CHF5074), a compound that favorably affects neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation and memory deficit in transgenic mouse models of AD, interacts with the AICD and impairs its nuclear activity. In neuroglioma-APPswe cells, CHF5074 shifted APP cleavage from Aβ42 to the less toxic Aβ38 peptide without affecting APP-C-terminal fragment, nor APP levels. As revealed by photoaffinity labeling, CHF5074 does not interact with γ-secretase, but binds to the AICD and lowers its nuclear translocation. In vivo treatment with CHF5074 reduced AICD occupancy as well as histone H3 acetylation levels and transcriptional output of the AICD-target gene KAI1. The data provide new mechanistic insights on this compound, which is under clinical investigation for AD treatment/prevention, as well as on the contribution of the AICD to AD pathology.Scientific Reports 04/2014; 4:4618. DOI:10.1038/srep04618 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: CHF5074 is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory derivative holding disease-modifying potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the present study was to characterize the electrophysiological and metabolic profile of CHF5074 in the hippocampus. Electrophysiological recordings show that CHF5074 inhibits in a dose-dependent manner the current-evoked repetitive firing discharge in CA1 pyramidal neurons. This result is paralleled by a dose-dependent reduction of field excitatory post-synaptic potentials with no effect on the paired-pulse ratio. The effects of CHF5074 were not mediated by AMPA or NMDA receptors, since the inward currents induced by local applications of AMPA and NMDA remained constant in the presence of this compound. We also suggest a possible activity of CHF5074 on ASIC1a receptor since ASIC1a-mediated current, evoked by application of a pH 5.5 solution, is reduced by pretreatment with this compound. Moreover, we demonstrate that CHF5074 treatment is able to counteract in hippocampal slices the OGD-induced increase in alanine, lactate and acetate levels. Finally, CHF5074 significantly reduced the apoptosis in hippocampal neurons exposed to OGD, as revealed by cleaved-caspase-3 immunoreactivity and TUNEL staining. Overall, the present work identifies novel mechanisms for CHF5074 in reducing metabolic acidosis, rendering this compound potentially useful also in conditions of brain ischemia.Pharmacological Research 03/2014; 81:83-90. DOI:10.1016/j.phrs.2014.02.010 · 3.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease acknowledged as progressive multifarious neurodegenerative disorder, is the leading cause of dementia in late adult life. Pathologically it is characterized by intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular amyloidal protein deposits contributing to senile plaques. Over the last two decades, advances in the field of pathogenesis have inspired the researchers for the investigation of novel pharmacological therapeutics centered more towards the pathophysiological events of the disease. Currently available treatments i.e. acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (rivastigmine, galantamine, donepezil) and N-methyl d-aspartate receptor antagonist (memantine) contribute minimal impact on the disease and target late aspects of the disease. These drugs decelerate the progression of the disease, provide symptomatic relief but fail to achieve a definite cure. While the neuropathological features of Alzheimer's disease are recognized but the intricacies of the mechanism have not been clearly defined. This lack of understanding regarding the pathogenic process may be the likely reason for the non-availability of effective treatment which can prevent onset and progression of the disease. Owing to the important progress in the field of pathophysiology in the last couple of years, new therapeutic targets are available that should render the underlying disease process to be tackled directly. In this review, authors will discusses the different aspects of pathophysiological mechanisms behind Alzheimer's disease and its management through conventional drug therapy, including modern investigational therapeutic strategies, recently completed and ongoing. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.Pharmacological reports: PR 04/2015; 67:105-203. DOI:10.1016/j.pharep.2014.09.004 · 2.17 Impact Factor