Unique genome-wide transcriptome profiles of chicken macrophages exposed to Salmonella-derived endotoxin
ABSTRACT Macrophages play essential roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. Bacteria require endotoxin, a complex lipopolysaccharide, for outer membrane permeability and the host interprets endotoxin as a signal to initiate an innate immune response. The focus of this study is kinetic and global transcriptional analysis of the chicken macrophage response to in vitro stimulation with endotoxin from Salmonella typhimurium-798.
The 38535-probeset Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome array was used to profile transcriptional response to endotoxin 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours post stimulation (hps). Using a maximum FDR (False Discovery Rate) of 0.05 to declare genes as differentially expressed (DE), we found 13, 33, 1761 and 61 DE genes between endotoxin-stimulated versus non-stimulated cells at 1, 2, 4 and 8 hps, respectively. QPCR demonstrated that endotoxin exposure significantly affected the mRNA expression of IL1B, IL6, IL8, and TLR15, but not IL10 and IFNG in HD 11 cells. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed that 10% of the total DE genes were involved in inflammatory response. Three, 9.7, 96.8, and 11.8% of the total DE inflammatory response genes were significantly differentially expressed with endotoxin stimulation at 1, 2, 4 and 8 hps, respectively. The NFKBIA, IL1B, IL8 and CCL4 genes were consistently induced at all times after endotoxin treatment. NLRC5 (CARD domain containing, NOD-like receptor family, RCJMB04_18i2), an intracellular receptor, was induced in HD11 cells treated with endotoxin.
As above using an in vitro model of chicken response to endotoxin, our data revealed the kinetics of gene networks involved in host response to endotoxin and extend the known complexity of networks in chicken immune response to Gram-negative bacteria such as Salmonella. The induction of NFKBIA, IL1B, IL8, CCL4 genes is a consistent signature of host response to endotoxin over time. We make the first report of induction of a NOD-like receptor family member in response to Salmonella endotoxin in chicken macrophages.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Michael J Wannemuehler, Jun 01, 2015
Click to see the full-text of:
Article: Unique genome-wide transcriptome profiles of chicken macrophages exposed to Salmonella-derived endotoxin
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Improvements in poultry production within the past 50 years have led to increased muscle yield and growth rate, which may be contributing to an increased rate and development of new muscle disorders in chickens. Previously reported muscle disorders and conditions are generally associated with poor meat quality traits and have a significant negative economic impact on the poultry industry. Recently, a novel myopathy phenotype has emerged which is characterized by palpably "hard" or tough breast muscle. The objective of this study is to identify the underlying biological mechanisms that contribute to this emerging muscle disorder colloquially referred to as "Wooden Breast", through the use of RNA-sequencing technology. We constructed cDNA libraries from five affected and six unaffected breast muscle samples from a line of commercial broiler chickens. After paired-end sequencing of samples using the Illumina Hiseq platform, we used Tophat to align the resulting sequence reads to the chicken reference genome and then used Cufflinks to find significant changes in gene transcript expression between each group. By comparing our gene list to previously published histology findings on this disorder and using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA®), we aim to develop a characteristic gene expression profile for this novel disorder through analyzing genes, gene families, and predicted biological pathways. Over 1500 genes were differentially expressed between affected and unaffected birds. There was an average of approximately 98 million reads per sample, across all samples. Results from the IPA analysis suggested "Diseases and Disorders" such as connective tissue disorders, "Molecular and Cellular Functions" such as cellular assembly and organization, cellular function and maintenance, and cellular movement, "Physiological System Development and Function" such as tissue development, and embryonic development, and "Top Canonical Pathways" such as, coagulation system, axonal guidance signaling, and acute phase response signaling, are associated with the Wooden Breast disease. There is convincing evidence by RNA-seq analysis to support localized hypoxia, oxidative stress, increased intracellular calcium, as well as the possible presence of muscle fiber-type switching, as key features of Wooden Breast Disease, which are supported by reported microscopic lesions of the disease.International Plant and Animal Genome Conference XXII 2014; 05/2015
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We have identified differences in gene expression in macrophages grown from the bone marrow of male and female chickens in recombinant chicken M-CSF (CSF1). Cells were profiled with or without treatment with bacterial LPS for 24 h. Approximately 600 transcripts were induced by prolonged LPS stimulation to an equal extent in the male and female macrophages. Many transcripts encoded on the Z chromosome were expressed ∼1.6-fold higher in males, reflecting a lack of dosage compensation in the homogametic sex. A smaller set of W chromosome-specific genes was expressed only in females. LPS signaling in mammals is associated with induction of type 1 IFN-responsive genes. Unexpectedly, because IFNs are encoded on the Z chromosome of chickens, unstimulated macrophages from the female birds expressed a set of known IFN-inducible genes at much higher levels than male cells under the same conditions. To confirm that these differences were not the consequence of the actions of gonadal hormones, we induced gonadal sex reversal to alter the hormonal environment of the developing chick and analyzed macrophages cultured from male, female, and female sex-reversed embryos. Gonadal sex reversal did not alter the sexually dimorphic expression of either sex-linked or IFN-responsive genes. We suggest that female birds compensate for the reduced dose of inducible IFN with a higher basal set point of IFN-responsive genes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors.The Journal of Immunology 01/2015; 194(5). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1401982 · 5.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In broilers, high ambient temperature can result in reduced feed consumption, digestive inefficiency, impaired metabolism, and even death. The broiler sector of the U.S. poultry industry incurs approximately $52 million in heat-related losses annually. The objective of this study is to characterize the effects of cyclic high ambient temperature on the transcriptome of a metabolically active organ, the liver. This study provides novel insight into the effects of high ambient temperature on metabolism in broilers, because it is the first reported RNA-seq study to characterize the effect of heat on the transcriptome of a metabolic-related tissue. This information provides a platform for future investigations to further elucidate physiologic responses to high ambient temperature and seek methods to ameliorate the negative impacts of heat. Transcriptome sequencing of the livers of 8 broiler males using Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology resulted in 138 million, 100-base pair single end reads, yielding a total of 13.8 gigabases of sequence. Forty genes were differentially expressed at a significance level of P-value < 0.05 and a fold-change >= 2 in response to a week of cyclic high ambient temperature with 27 down-regulated and 13 up-regulated genes. Two gene networks were created from the function-based Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) of the differentially expressed genes: "Cell Signaling" and "Endocrine System Development and Function". The gene expression differences in the liver transcriptome of the heat-exposed broilers reflected physiological responses to decrease internal temperature, reduce hyperthermia-induced apoptosis, and promote tissue repair. Additionally, the differential gene expression revealed a physiological response to regulate the perturbed cellular calcium levels that can result from high ambient temperature exposure. Exposure to cyclic high ambient temperature results in changes at the metabolic, physiologic, and cellular level that can be characterized through RNA-seq analysis of the liver transcriptome of broilers. The findings highlight specific physiologic mechanisms by which broilers reduce the effects of exposure to high ambient temperature. This information provides a foundation for future investigations into the gene networks involved in the broiler stress response and for development of strategies to ameliorate the negative impacts of heat on animal production and welfare.BMC Genomics 12/2014; 15(1):1084. DOI:10.1186/1471-2164-15-1084 · 4.04 Impact Factor