Article

Effect of nitrogen rate on grain yield of bread wheat genotypes

Genetika 01/2010;
Source: DOAJ

ABSTRACT The improvement in grain yield is the main objective of bread wheat breeding programs. Numerous studies indicate that nitrogen is the key factor of yield and quality in the wheat. The goal of this paper is to investigate variability of grain yield, of twelve bread wheat genotypes, on three nitrogen level. ANOVA showed that this trait was mostly under influence of the genotype (36, 3%), year × genotype interaction (26, 3%), year of investigation (14, 1%), and in the smallest amount of the nitrogen rate (8, 8%). On all three nitrogen level, the highest grain yield was found in the variety Malyska. The lowest grain yield in control was found in the variety Nevesinjka, while in the N75 and N100 rates it was found in the variety Tamaro. The mean performance of individual cultivars, in nine environments (three years × three nitrogen rates), was depicted using which-won-were view of SREG2 biplot. The nine environments fall into two sectors, which is an indication of a strong crossover GE interaction. Genotype Malyska was the winner (the highest yielding variety) in first sector containing seven environments, while genotypes Pertrana and Axis were the winners in second sector containing two environments.

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    ABSTRACT: Due to economic and ecological factors, European agricultural practices are likely to go towards extensive systems with lower inputs of nitrogen (N) fertilisers. The objective of this study was to assess varietal differences for N use at two nitrogen levels. A set of 20 winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes was studied over 2 years in northern France on a deep loam soil without (N0) and with 170 kg ha−1 N fertiliser (N+) as ammonium nitrate. Results were consistent on both years as the genotype×year or genotype×year×N level interactions were not significant. The genotype×N level interaction was highly significant except for total N utilisation efficiency (total above-ground dry weight/total above-ground N) and grain N concentration. The genotype×N level interaction for grain yield was mainly due to three contrasting genotypes: Cappelle, a cultivar from the 1940s, had the same yield at N0 and N+; Arche had a high yield at both N levels; and Récital had a high yield with added N and a very low one without N. The number of kernels/ear explained most of the variations of grain yield at N0 (48%) and N+ (80%), and of the interaction (67%). N uptake efficiency (total above-ground N/soil N supply) accounted for 64% of the variation in N use efficiency (grain yield/soil N supply), while at N0 and at N+ it accounted for only 30%. N utilisation efficiency (grain yield/total above-ground N) was then more important at N+ than at N0. Grain N explained most of total plant N variation at both N levels. The interaction for N use efficiency was best explained by the interaction of N uptake (63%). The applications of these results to a breeding programme to create varieties adapted to low-input management systems are discussed.
    European Journal of Agronomy 06/2000; · 2.80 Impact Factor

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May 27, 2014