IL-33 Mediates Inflammatory Responses in Human Lung Tissue Cells
ABSTRACT IL-33 is a member of the IL-1 family and mediates its biological effects via the ST2 receptor, which is selectively expressed on Th2 cells and mast cells. Although polymorphic variation in ST2 is strongly associated with asthma, it is currently unclear whether IL-33 acts directly on lung tissue cells at sites of airway remodeling. Therefore, we aimed to identify the IL-33-responsive cells among primary human lung tissue cells. ST2 mRNA was expressed in both endothelial and epithelial cells but not in fibroblasts or smooth muscle cells. Correspondingly, IL-33 promoted IL-8 production by both endothelial and epithelial cells but not by fibroblasts or smooth muscle cells. Transfection of ST2 small interference RNA into both endothelial and epithelial cells significantly reduced the IL-33-dependent upregulation of IL-8, suggesting that IL-33-mediated responses in these cells occur via the ST2 receptor. Importantly, Th2 cytokines, such as IL-4, further enhanced ST2 expression and function in both endothelial and epithelial cells. The IL-33-mediated production of IL-8 by epithelial cells was almost completely suppressed by corticosteroid treatment. In contrast, the effect of corticosteroid treatment on the IL-33-mediated responses of endothelial cells was only partial. IL-33 induced activation of both ERK and p38 MAPK in endothelial cells but only ERK in epithelial cells. p38 MAPK was required for the IL-33-mediated responses of endothelial cells, whereas ERK was required for IL-33-mediated IL-8 production by epithelial cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that IL-33-mediated inflammatory responses of lung tissue cells may be involved in the chronic allergic inflammation of the asthmatic airway.
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ABSTRACT: Inflammation is defined as a physiological response initiated by a variety of conditions that cause insult to the body, such as infection and tissue injury. Inflammation is triggered by specialized receptors in the innate immune system, which recognize microbial components known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns or endogenous signals produced by damaged cells (damage-associated molecular patterns). IL-33 is a cytokine that is released predominantly at the epithelial barrier when it is exposed to pathogens, allergens, or injury-inducing stimuli. IL-33 target cells are various, ranging from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and essentially all types of their progeny to many non-hematopoietic cells. The pleiotropic actions of IL-33 suggest that IL-33 is involved in every phase of the inflammatory process. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of how IL-33 orchestrates inflammatory responses by regulating HSPCs and innate immune cells.Frontiers in Immunology 05/2013; 4:104. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2013.00104
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ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-33, a new member of the IL-1 cytokine family, has been recognized as a key cytokine that enhances T helper 2-balanced immune regulation through its receptor ST2; however, the function and relationship of the IL-33 and ST2 pathways in bronchial asthma are still unclear. We investigated the cellular origin and regulation of IL-33 and ST2 in allergic bronchial asthma in vivo and in vitro. BALB/c mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal injections of ovalbumin (OVA) with alum. Mice were exposed to aerosolized 1% OVA for 30 min a day for 7 days. These mice were then challenged with aerosolized 1% OVA 2 days after the last day of exposure. After the OVA challenge, the mice were sacrificed and their lung tissues were obtained. Mouse lung fibroblasts were cultured and treated with IL-33 or IL-13. The levels of IL-33 mRNA and IL-33 protein in lung tissue increased after the OVA challenge. Most IL-33-expressing cells were CD11c+ cells and epithelial cells, and many ST2-expressing cells were stained lung fibroblasts and inflammatory cells. IL-33 induced eotaxin/CCL11 production in lung fibroblasts. IL-33 and IL-13 synergistically induced eotaxin expression. IL-33 may contribute to the induction and maintenance of eosinophilic inflammation in the airways by acting on lung fibroblasts. IL-33 and ST2 may play important roles in allergic bronchial asthma.International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 01/2011; 155 Suppl 1:12-20. DOI:10.1159/000327259 · 2.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Numerous pro-inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular diseases. Interleukin (IL)-33 is a new member of the IL-1 family of cytokines that promotes Th2 type immune responses by signaling through the ST2L and IL-1RAcP dimeric receptor complex. Furthermore, the biological effects of IL-33 are limited by a soluble decoy form of ST2 (sST2). Recent studies indicate a protective role for IL-33 and ST2L in atherosclerosis, obesity and cardiac remodeling. The present review summarizes currently available data showing the role for IL-33 and its receptor ST2L within cardiovascular disease, and the potential use of sST2 as a predictive cardiovascular biomarker.Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 02/2011; 131(2):179-86. DOI:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2011.02.005 · 7.75 Impact Factor