Association between cardiorespiratory fitness and arterial stiffness in men with the metabolic syndrome
ABSTRACT We tested the hypothesis that high cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) is associated with lower levels of arterial stiffness in 1035 (age 52 ± 6 years) men with and without the metabolic syndrome.
Arterial stiffness was derived from brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Fitness was directly measured by peak oxygen uptake during a standard treadmill test.
Men with the metabolic syndrome (n = 168) had significantly higher baPWV than men without the metabolic syndrome (1424 ± 175 cm/s vs. 1333 ± 150 cm/s, p < 0.05). When separated according to quartiles of fitness, men with and without the metabolic syndrome in the highest quartile of fitness had significantly lower baPWV compared to men in the lowest quartile of fitness (p < 0.05). Fitness was inversely correlated with baPWV in men with (p = -0.29, p < 0.05) and without the metabolic syndrome (p = -0.22, p < 0.05). There was no differences in baPWV levels between fit men with the metabolic syndrome and unfit men without the metabolic syndrome (fit/MetS; 1366 ± 140 vs. unfit/no MetS; 1401 ± 194 cm/s, p = 0.81).
These results demonstrate that high fitness is inversely associated with arterial stiffness in men with and without the metabolic syndrome. Increased arterial stiffness in the metabolic syndrome is attenuated by high fitness.
SourceAvailable from: Nelson Sousa[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: AimThe present randomized controlled trial evaluated the impact of different exercise training modalities on functional fitness responses in apparently healthy older men. MethodsA total of 59 community-dwelling older men were randomly assigned to an aerobic training group (ATG, n=19), a combined aerobic and resistance training group (CTG, n=20) or a control group (n=20). Both exercise training programs were moderate-to-vigorous intensity, 3 days/week for 9 months. Six independent functional fitness tests (back scratch, chair sit-and-reach, 30-s chair stand, arm curl, 8-ft up-and-go, 6-min walk) were measured on five different occasions. The data were analyzed using a mixed-model ANOVA. ResultsANOVA showed a significant main effect of group (P<0.001) for all functional fitness tests, with significant differences between both training groups and controls. However, the ATG only improved the chair sit-and-reach and the 30-s chair stand performance, whereas CTG improved in all functional fitness tests. ANOVA also identified a significant main effect of time for 8-ft up-and-go (P=0.031) in the CTG. Conclusions Only the combined exercise program was effective in improving all functional fitness components related to daily living activities. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2014; 14: 892-898.Geriatrics and Gerontology International 11/2014; 12:892-898. DOI:10.1111/ggi.12188 · 1.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine whether arterial stiffness is associated with cognitive function after adjustment for physical fitness in patients with chronic stroke. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted in 102 patients with chronic stroke who participated in an exercise rehabilitation programme. Carotid femoral pulse wave velocity and augmentation index were measured as indices of arterial stiffness and central systolic loading. Cognitive function was assessed with the Mini Mental State Examination. Parameters of physical fitness included the 6-min walk test, flexibility, balance, and muscle strength tests. Results: Carotid femoral pulse wave velocity was significantly associated with Mini Mental State Examination (r = -0.45, p < 0.01) and parameters of physical fitness (r = -0.45~ -0.55, p < 0.01, all). Mini Mental State Examination was significantly associated with parameters of physical fitness (r = 0.32~0.46, p < 0.01, all). In multivariable linear regression models, carotid femoral pulse wave velocity was inversely associated with Mini Mental State Examination after adjustment for multiple risk factors (beta = -0.33, p = 0.01). However, the association was attenuated and became non-significant after additional adjustment for physical fitness (beta = -0.11, p = 0.39). Conclusion: Arterial stiffness measured by carotid femoral pulse wave velocity is associated with cognitive function in patients with chronic stroke, but not after adjustment for physical fitness. Maintaining appropriate levels of physical fitness may have a favourable effect on both vascular and cognitive function in patients with stroke.Journal of rehabilitation medicine: official journal of the UEMS European Board of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 02/2014; 46(5). DOI:10.2340/16501977-1790 · 1.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a 3-fold increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality partly due to increased arterial stiffening. We compared the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffening/mechanics in MetS without overt CVD or Type 2 Diabetes. MetS and healthy controls (Con) underwent 8 weeks of exercise training (ExT; 11 MetS and 11 Con) or remained inactive (NonT; 11 MetS and 10 Con). The following measures were performed pre and post intervention: radial pulse wave analysis (applanation tonometry) was used to measure augmentation pressure and index, central pressures, and an estimate of myocardial efficiency; arterial stiffness was assessed from carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV, applanation tonometry); carotid thickness was assessed from B-mode ultrasound; and peak aerobic capacity (gas exchange) was performed in the seated position. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), and CVD risk (Framingham risk score) were also assessed. cfPWV was reduced (p<0.05) in MetS-ExT (7.9+0.6 to 7.2+0.4 m/s) and Con-ExT (6.6+1.8 to 5.6+1.6 m/s). Exercise training reduced (p<0.05) central systolic pressure (116+5 to 110+4, mmHg), augmentation pressure (9+1 to 7+1, mmHg), augmentation index (19+3 to 15+4%), and improved myocardial efficiency (155+8 to 168+9) but only in the MetS group. Aerobic capacity increased (p<0.05) in MetS-ExT (16.6±1.0 to 19.9±1.0) and Con-ExT (23.8±1.6 to 26.3±1.6). MMP-1 and 7 were correlated with cfPWV and both MMP-1 and 7 were reduced post-exercise training in MetS. These findings suggest that some of the pathophysiological changes associated with MetS can be improved after aerobic exercise training thereby lowering their CV risk.Journal of Applied Physiology 04/2014; 116(11). DOI:10.1152/japplphysiol.00151.2014 · 3.43 Impact Factor