Association between cardiorespiratory fitness and arterial stiffness in men with the metabolic syndrome.
ABSTRACT We tested the hypothesis that high cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) is associated with lower levels of arterial stiffness in 1035 (age 52 ± 6 years) men with and without the metabolic syndrome.
Arterial stiffness was derived from brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Fitness was directly measured by peak oxygen uptake during a standard treadmill test.
Men with the metabolic syndrome (n = 168) had significantly higher baPWV than men without the metabolic syndrome (1424 ± 175 cm/s vs. 1333 ± 150 cm/s, p < 0.05). When separated according to quartiles of fitness, men with and without the metabolic syndrome in the highest quartile of fitness had significantly lower baPWV compared to men in the lowest quartile of fitness (p < 0.05). Fitness was inversely correlated with baPWV in men with (p = -0.29, p < 0.05) and without the metabolic syndrome (p = -0.22, p < 0.05). There was no differences in baPWV levels between fit men with the metabolic syndrome and unfit men without the metabolic syndrome (fit/MetS; 1366 ± 140 vs. unfit/no MetS; 1401 ± 194 cm/s, p = 0.81).
These results demonstrate that high fitness is inversely associated with arterial stiffness in men with and without the metabolic syndrome. Increased arterial stiffness in the metabolic syndrome is attenuated by high fitness.
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ABSTRACT: AimThe present randomized controlled trial evaluated the impact of different exercise training modalities on functional fitness responses in apparently healthy older men.MethodsA total of 59 community-dwelling older men were randomly assigned to an aerobic training group (ATG, n = 19), a combined aerobic and resistance training group (CTG, n = 20) or a control group (n = 20). Both exercise training programs were moderate-to-vigorous intensity, 3 days/week for 9 months. Six independent functional fitness tests (back scratch, chair sit-and-reach, 30-s chair stand, arm curl, 8-ft up-and-go, 6-min walk) were measured on five different occasions. The data were analyzed using a mixed-model ANOVA.ResultsANOVA showed a significant main effect of group (P < 0.001) for all functional fitness tests, with significant differences between both training groups and controls. However, the ATG only improved the chair sit-and-reach and the 30-s chair stand performance, whereas CTG improved in all functional fitness tests. ANOVA also identified a significant main effect of time for 8-ft up-and-go (P = 0.031) in the CTG.Conclusions Only the combined exercise program was effective in improving all functional fitness components related to daily living activities. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2014; ●●: ●●–●●.Geriatrics and Gerontology International 04/2014; · 2.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The regular practice of physical activity is a well-recommended strategy for the prevention and treatment of several cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Physical exercise prevents the progression of vascular diseases and reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exercise training also ameliorates vascular changes including endothelial dysfunction and arterial remodeling and stiffness, usually present in type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Common to these diseases is excessive oxidative stress, which plays an important role in the processes underlying vascular changes. At the vascular level, exercise training improves the redox state and consequently NO availability. Moreover, growing evidence indicates that other mediators such as prostanoids might be involved in the beneficial effects of exercise. The purpose of this review is to update recent findings describing the adaptation response induced by exercise in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, focusing more specifically on the beneficial effects of exercise in the vasculature and the underlying mechanisms.Current Hypertension Reports 03/2013; · 3.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Serum total bilirubin has been suggested to have the potential anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on the vasculature. This study was designed to investigate the association of bilirubin with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a marker of arterial stiffness and cardiovascular disease. Hypertensive male subjects (n = 2,361) were classified into groups according to the 50th, 75th, and 95th percentiles of baPWV value. Correlation and regression analysis were used to assess the relationship between baPWV and other variables. Hypertensive subjects with baPWV above the 50th, 75th, and 95th percentiles had a significantly lower bilirubin level than those with baPWV under them (0.97 ± 0.40 vs. 1.00 ± 0.41 mg/dl, P < 0.001; 0.95 ± 0.39 vs. 0.99 ± 0.41 mg/dl, P = 0.001; 0.92 ± 0.36 vs. 0.99 ± 0.42 mg/dl, P = 0.048, respectively). Bilirubin is inversely related to baPWV (R (2) = 0.0032, P = 0.003) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (correlation coefficient = -0.13, P < 0.001). A 0.1 mg/dl increase in bilirubin was associated with a 19, 20, and 34 % reduced odds ratio for baPWV above the 50th, 75th, and 95th percentiles, respectively [odds ratio (OR) 0.77 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.62-0.95), P = 0.015; OR 0.80 (95 % CI 0.64-0.99), P = 0.044; OR 0.68 (95 % CI 0.45-1.00), P = 0.048, respectively] after adjustment for several variables. This study demonstrates an independent inverse association between bilirubin and baPWV in hypertensive men. Additionally, reduced CRP may be one of mediators on the mechanisms how bilirubin reduces baPWV.Heart and Vessels 06/2012; · 2.13 Impact Factor