Bousquet, J. et al. Uniform definition of asthma severity, control, and exacerbations: document presented for the World Health Organization Consultation on Severe Asthma. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 126, 926-938
Asthma is a global health problem affecting around 300 million individuals of all ages, ethnic groups and countries. It is estimated that around 250,000 people die prematurely each year as a result of asthma. Concepts of asthma severity and control are important in evaluating patients and their response to treatment, as well as for public health, registries, and research (clinical trials, epidemiologic, genetic, and mechanistic studies), but the terminology applied is not standardized, and terms are often used interchangeably. A common international approach is favored to define severe asthma, uncontrolled asthma, and when the 2 coincide, although adaptation may be required in accordance with local conditions. A World Health Organization meeting was convened April 5-6, 2009, to propose a uniform definition of severe asthma. An article was written by a group of experts and reviewed by the Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases review group. Severe asthma is defined by the level of current clinical control and risks as "Uncontrolled asthma which can result in risk of frequent severe exacerbations (or death) and/or adverse reactions to medications and/or chronic morbidity (including impaired lung function or reduced lung growth in children)." Severe asthma includes 3 groups, each carrying different public health messages and challenges: (1) untreated severe asthma, (2) difficult-to-treat severe asthma, and (3) treatment-resistant severe asthma. The last group includes asthma for which control is not achieved despite the highest level of recommended treatment and asthma for which control can be maintained only with the highest level of recommended treatment.
"Asthma affects about 300 million people of all ages and ethnic groups worldwide , with an estimated increase in prevalence to 400 million by 2025 . The economic burden in terms of direct (hospitalization , use of emergency room visits, therapy) and indirect (missed days of work/school) costs adds to the emotional, physical and social impact of asthma, with consequent quality of life deterioration for both patients and their families . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: International guidelines describe asthma control as the main outcome of asthma management. Prevention of symptoms, improved quality of life, and reduction of exacerbations are the main components, consequently decreasing health care costs. However, many of these objectives remain unmet in real life: several surveys show that a large proportion of asthmatic patients are not well controlled despite the efficacy of current available treatment.
Several randomized controlled clinical trials indicate that combining inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2-agonists, by means of a single inhaler, greatly improves the management of the disease. The results of 9 multicenter phase III clinical studies demonstrate that the fixed combination of fluticasone propionate/formoterol in a single inhaler is effective in terms of lung function and symptom control. These studies highlight the dose flexibility, safety and tolerability of this new inhaled combination. These characteristics meet the recommendations of international guidelines, and the preferences of respiratory physicians who identified these aspects as critical components of a successful asthma therapy. Combination of fluticasone propionate/formoterol in a single inhaler provides potent anti-inflammatory activity of fluticasone propionate and rapid onset of action of the β2-agonist formoterol making this association a viable treatment option both in terms of effectiveness and compliance.
European Journal of Internal Medicine 10/2014; 25(8). DOI:10.1016/j.ejim.2014.06.022 · 2.89 Impact Factor
"More than 20 million people in the USA are estimated to have asthma . Asthma markedly diminishes quality of life due to limited activity and absences from work or school and causes hospitalizations, with significant social and economic consequences [90,91]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Omalizumab, a humanized mAb that binds to the CH3 domain near the binding site for the high-affinity type-I IgE Fc receptors of human IgE, can neutralize free IgE and inhibit the IgE allergic pathway without sensitizing mast cells and basophils. We found that omalizumab in patients with severe persistent asthma (SPA) was an effective therapy for asthma and the following co-morbid conditions: chronic urticaria (CU), bee venom allergy, latex allergy, atopic dermatitis, food allergy and Samter’s syndrome. Information on the use of omalizumab in treatment of asthma and other allergic diseases has improved our understanding that treatment acts on many levels, including regulating levels of inflammatory proteins, including cytokines (copper-containing alpha- 2-glycoprotein, total antioxidant capacity, MDA, NO, H2O2, CXCL8, IL-10, TGF-β, GMCSF, IL-17, IL-1β), MPV, Hs-CRP, eosinophil cationic peptide, vitamin-D (25(OH)D), homocysteine (Hcy), OX-2, d- dimer, albumin, and sApo-2L. The decrease in Hcy concentrations and increase in 25(OH)D also support the existence of a vascular endothelial protection mechanism. Mediators and cells classically involved in pro-coagulant and anticoagulant pathways together play a role in SPA and CU pathophysiology and omalizumab effect.
The mechanism of action of omalizumab in the treatment of asthma is believed to be multifactorial, and includes effects mediated through altered production of redox metabolites, extrinsic coagulation pathway, oxidative markers-related mi RNA, TRAIL-related mi RNA, and regulation of production of known inflammatory proteins.
Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 06/2014; 20. DOI:10.12659/MSM.890137 · 1.43 Impact Factor
"The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates about 250 000 deaths from asthma every year, mainly in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) (3,4). Just like with many other chronic diseases in Africa, the fast rate of urbanization has been linked to the increase in the burden of asthma and other allergic diseases (3,5,6). The prevalence of these conditions may, in theory, have the potential to reach levels higher than those observed in high-income countries (HIC) due to priming effects of parasitic helminthic infections on the immune system, as these infections are common in many African settings (5). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim
To estimate and compare asthma prevalence in Africa in 1990, 2000, and 2010 in order to provide information that will help inform the planning of the public health response to the disease.
We conducted a systematic search of Medline, EMBASE, and Global Health for studies on asthma published between 1990 and 2012. We included cross-sectional population based studies providing numerical estimates on the prevalence of asthma. We calculated weighted mean prevalence and applied an epidemiological model linking age with the prevalence of asthma. The UN population figures for Africa for 1990, 2000, and 2010 were used to estimate the cases of asthma, each for the respective year.
Our search returned 790 studies. We retained 45 studies that met our selection criteria. In Africa in 1990, we estimated 34.1 million asthma cases (12.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.2-16.9) among children <15 years, 64.9 million (11.8%; 95% CI 7.9-15.8) among people aged <45 years, and 74.4 million (11.7%; 95% CI 8.2-15.3) in the total population. In 2000, we estimated 41.3 million cases (12.9%; 95% CI 8.7-17.0) among children <15 years, 82.4 million (12.5%; 95% CI 5.9-19.1) among people aged <45 years, and 94.8 million (12.0%; 95% CI 5.0-18.8) in the total population. This increased to 49.7 million (13.9%; 95% CI 9.6-18.3) among children <15 years, 102.9 million (13.8%; 95% CI 6.2-21.4) among people aged <45 years, and 119.3 million (12.8%; 95% CI 8.2-17.1) in the total population in 2010. There were no significant differences between asthma prevalence in studies which ascertained cases by written and video questionnaires. Crude prevalences of asthma were, however, consistently higher among urban than rural dwellers.
Our findings suggest an increasing prevalence of asthma in Africa over the past two decades. Due to the paucity of data, we believe that the true prevalence of asthma may still be under-estimated. There is a need for national governments in Africa to consider the implications of this increasing disease burden and to investigate the relative importance of underlying risk factors such as rising urbanization and population aging in their policy and health planning responses to this challenge.
Croatian Medical Journal 12/2013; 54(6):519-31. DOI:10.3325/cmj.2013.54.519 · 1.31 Impact Factor
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