Arn1 is an integral membrane protein that mediates the uptake of ferrichrome, an important nutritional source of iron, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the absence of ferrichrome, Arn1p is sorted directly from the trans-Golgi network to the vacuolar lumen for degradation. In the presence of low levels of ferrichrome, the siderophore binds to a receptor domain on Arn1, triggering the redistribution of Arn1 to the plasma membrane. When extracellular ferrichrome levels are high, Arn1 cycles between the plasma membrane and intracellular vesicles. To further understand the mechanisms of trafficking of Arn1p, we screened 4580 viable yeast deletion mutants for mislocalization of Arn1-GFP using synthetic genetic array technology. We identified over 100 genes required for trans-Golgi network-to-vacuole trafficking of Arn1-GFP and only two genes, SER1 and SER2, required for the ferrichrome-induced plasma membrane trafficking of Arn1-GFP. SER1 and SER2 encode two enzymes of the major serine biosynthetic pathway, and the Arn1 trafficking defect in the ser1Δ strain was corrected with supplemental serine or glycine. Plasma membrane trafficking of Hxt3, a structurally related glucose transporter, was unaffected by SER1 deletion. Serine is required for the synthesis of multiple cellular components, including purines, sphingolipids, and phospholipids, but of these only phosphatidylserine corrected the Arn1 trafficking defects of the ser1Δ strain. Strains with defects in phospholipid synthesis also exhibited alterations in Arn1p trafficking, indicating that the intracellular trafficking of some transporters is dependent on the phospholipid composition of the cellular membranes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The N-terminal six-transmembrane domain (TM) bundle of lactose permease of Escherichia coli is uniformly inverted when assembled in membranes lacking phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Inversion is dependent on the net charge of cytoplasmically exposed protein domains containing positive and negative residues, net charge of the membrane surface, and low hydrophobicity of TM VII acting as a molecular hinge between the two halves of lactose permease (Bogdanov, M., Xie, J., Heacock, P., and Dowhan, W. (2008) J. Cell Biol. 182, 925-935). Net neutral lipids suppress the membrane translocation potential of negatively charged amino acids, thus increasing the cytoplasmic retention potential of positively charged amino acids. Herein, TM organization of sucrose permease (CscB) and phenylalanine permease (PheP) as a function of membrane lipid composition was investigated to extend these principles to other proteins. For CscB, topological dependence on PE only becomes evident after a significant increase in the net negative charge of the cytoplasmic surface of the N-terminal TM bundle. High negative charge is required to overcome the thermodynamic block to inversion due to the high hydrophobicity of TM VII. Increasing the positive charge of the cytoplasmic surface of the N-terminal TM hairpin of PheP, which is misoriented in PE-lacking cells, favors native orientation in the absence of PE. PheP and CscB also display co-existing dual topologies dependent on changes in the charge balance between protein domains and the membrane lipids. Therefore, the topology of both permeases is dependent on PE. However, CscB topology is governed by thermodynamic balance between opposing lipid-dependent electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We provide an overview of lipid-dependent polytopic membrane protein folding and topogenesis. Lipid dependence of this process was determined by employing Escherichia coli cells in which specific lipids can be eliminated, substituted, tightly titrated or controlled temporally during membrane protein synthesis and assembly. The secondary transport protein lactose permease (LacY) was used to establish general principles underlying the molecular basis of lipid-dependent effects on protein domain folding, protein transmembrane domain (TM) orientation, and function. These principles were then extended to several other secondary transport proteins of E. coli. The methods used to follow proper conformational organization of protein domains and the topological organization of protein TMs in whole cells and membranes are described. The proper folding of an extramembrane domain of LacY that is crucial for energy dependent uphill transport function depends on specific lipids acting as non-protein molecular chaperones. Correct TM topogenesis is dependent on charge interactions between the cytoplasmic surface of membrane proteins and a proper balance of the membrane surface net charge defined by the lipid head groups. Short-range interactions between the nascent protein chain and the translocon are necessary but not sufficient for establishment of final topology. After release from the translocon short-range interactions between lipid head groups and the nascent protein chain, partitioning of protein hydrophobic domains into the membrane bilayer, and long-range interactions within the protein thermodynamically drive final membrane protein organization. Given the diversity of membrane lipid compositions throughout nature, it is tempting to speculate that during the course of evolution the physical and chemical properties of proteins and lipids have co-evolved in the context of the lipid environment of membrane systems in which both are mutually dependent on each other for functional organization of proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Folding in Membranes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Di- and tripeptide transporters of the PTR/NRT1 (peptide transporter/nitrate transporter1)-family are localized either at the tonoplast (TP) or plasma membrane (PM). As limited information is available on structural determinants required for targeting of plant membrane proteins, we performed gene shuffling and domain swapping experiments of Arabidopsis PTRs. A 7 amino acid fragment of the hydrophilic N-terminal region of PTR2, PTR4 and PTR6 was required for TP localization and sufficient to redirect not only PM-localized PTR1 or PTR5, but also sucrose transporter SUC2 to the TP. Alanine scanning mutagenesis identified L(11) and I(12) of PTR2 to be essential for TP targeting, while only one acidic amino acid at position 5, 6 or 7 was required, revealing a dileucine (LL or LI) motif with at least one upstream acidic residue. Similar dileucine motifs could be identified in other plant TP transporters, indicating a broader role of this targeting motif in plants. Targeting to the PM required the loop between transmembrane domain 6 and 7 of PTR1 or PTR5. Deletion of either PM or TP targeting signals resulted in retention in internal membranes, indicating that PTR trafficking to these destination membranes requires distinct signals and is in both cases not by default.
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