Preliminary results of a phase I trial of prophylactic ethanol-lock administration to prevent mediport catheter-related bloodstream infections

Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA.
Journal of Pediatric Surgery (Impact Factor: 1.31). 10/2010; 45(10):1961-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2010.05.014
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Catheter-related bloodstream infections remain costly with no simple prevention. We report preliminary results of a phase I trial of ethanol-lock administration to prevent mediport catheter-related bloodstream infections in children.
Twelve patients receiving intravenous antibody treatments for neuroblastoma were enrolled. On 4 days of each 5-day antibody cycle, 70% ethanol was administered instead of heparin to dwell in each patient's mediport overnight. We used clinical monitoring/questionnaires to assess symptoms and measured blood ethanol levels and liver functions. Patients were tracked for positive blood cultures. Time to infection for ethanol-lock-treated patients was compared with historical controls.
We administered 123 ethanol-locks. No adverse symptoms attributable to ethanol occurred; one patient's urticaria worsened. Blood ethanol levels averaged 11 mg/dL. The study was voluntarily suspended after 3 patients' catheters became occluded, 1 of which fractured. A positive blood culture occurred in 1 (8%) of 12 patients, but suspension of the study precluded statistical power to detect impact on time to infection.
Although children with mediport catheters exhibited nontoxic blood ethanol levels and a low rate of bloodstream infections following prophylactic ethanol-lock use, there was a high incidence of catheter occlusion. Adjustments are necessary before adopting ethanol-locks for routine prophylaxis against catheter infections in children.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clinical reports of ethanol-lock use for the prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections have been marked by the occurrence of serious catheter occlusions, particularly among children with mediports. We hypothesized that precipitate forms when ethanol mixes with heparin at the concentrations relevant for vascular access devices, but that the use of a combination of two alcohols, ethanol and isopropanol, would diminish heparin-related precipitation, while retaining anti-bacterial and anti-fungal effects.
    Journal of Pediatric Surgery 08/2014; 50(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2014.07.003 · 1.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ethanol lock therapy (ELT) has emerged as an effective method for the prevention and treatment of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), but the safety of ELT in infants has not been established. The objective of this study was to determine blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and evidence of hepatic injury in infants after infusing a small one-time dose of ethanol, equivalent to the volume that would be flushed through the central venous catheter (CVC) after ELT is completed. This was a prospective pilot study in infants weighing ≤6 kg with and without liver dysfunction who had a CVC. The primary end points were 5-minute and 1-hour BACs after a 0.4-mL dose of 70% ethanol was flushed through the CVC. Acceptable BACs were defined as <0.025% at 5 minutes and <0.01% at 1 hour. The secondary end point was evidence of hepatic injury, defined as a change of greater than 2 times the upper limit of normal of any component in the hepatic panel in patients with a normal baseline panel or doubling of any component in the hepatic panel in patients with an abnormal baseline panel (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, total or direct bilirubin, gamma-glutamyl transferase, or alkaline phosphatase). A total of 10 patients were included for analysis, with a mean age and weight of 3.5 ± 2.4 months and 4.5 ± 0.9 kg, respectively. All patients had acceptable BACs and no evidence of hepatic injury. In 8 patients, 5-minute BACs were undetectable; BACs of the other 2 patients were 0.011%. One-hour BACs in all patients were undetectable. Flushing ELT resulted in acceptable BACs and no evidence of hepatic injury in this patient cohort. Further studies are needed to investigate the long-term safety and efficacy of ethanol infusion after ELT in this patient population for the prevention and treatment of CLABSIs. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 01/2015; 49(4). DOI:10.1177/1060028015569881 · 2.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Millions of indwelling devices are implanted in patients every year, and staphylococci (S. aureus, MRSA and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA)) are responsible for a majority of infections associated with these devices, thereby leading to treatment failures. Once established, staphylococcal biofilms become resistant to antimicrobial treatment and host response, thereby serving as the etiological agent for recurrent infections. This study investigated the efficacy of octenidine hydrochloride (OH) for inhibiting biofilm synthesis and inactivating fully-formed staphylococcal biofilm on different matrices in the presence and absence of serum protein. Polystyrene plates and stainless steel coupons inoculated with S. aureus, MRSA or VRSA were treated with OH (zero, 0.5, one, 2 mM) at 37 °C for the prevention of biofilm formation. Additionally, the antibiofilm effect of OH (zero, 2.5, five, 10 mM) on fully-formed staphylococcal biofilms on polystyrene plates, stainless steel coupons and urinary catheters was investigated. OH was effective in rapidly inactivating planktonic and biofilm cells of S. aureus, MRSA and VRSA on polystyrene plates, stainless steel coupons and urinary catheters in the presence and absence of serum proteins. The use of two and 10 mM OH completely inactivated S. aureus planktonic cells and biofilm (>6.0 log reduction) on all matrices tested immediately upon exposure. Further, confocal imaging revealed the presence of dead cells and loss in biofilm architecture in the OH-treated samples when compared to intact live biofilm in the control. Results suggest that OH could be applied as an effective antimicrobial to control biofilms of S. aureus, MRSA and VRSA on appropriate hospital surfaces and indwelling devices.
    04/2014; 3(2):404-416. DOI:10.3390/pathogens3020404


Available from