Mesenchymal stem cells for the sustained in vivo delivery of bioactive factors.
ABSTRACT Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a promising tool for cell therapy, either through direct contribution to the repair of bone, tendon and cartilage or as an adjunct therapy through protein production and immune mediation. They are an attractive vehicle for cellular therapies due to a variety of cell intrinsic and environmentally responsive properties. Following transplantation, MSC are capable of systemic migration, are not prone to tumor formation, and appear to tolerize the immune response across donor mismatch. These attributes combine to allow MSC to reside in many different tissue types without disrupting the local microenvironment and, in some cases, responding to the local environment with appropriate protein secretion. We describe work done by our group and others in using human MSC for the sustained in vivo production of supraphysiological levels of cytokines for the support of cotransplanted hematopoietic stem cells and enzymes that are deficient in animal models of lysosomal storage disorders such as MPSVII. In addition, the use of MSC engineered to secrete protein products has been reviewed in several fields of tissue injury repair, including but not limited to revascularization after myocardial infarction, regeneration of intervertebral disc defects and spine therapy, repair of stroke, therapy for epilepsy, skeletal tissue repair, chondrogenesis/knee and joint repair, and neurodegenerative diseases. Genetically engineered MSC have thus proven safe and efficacious in numerous animal models of disease modification and tissue repair and are poised to be tested in human clinical trials. The potential for these interesting cells to secrete endogenous or transgene products in a sustained and long-term manner is highly promising and is discussed in the current review.
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ABSTRACT: Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal, autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded trinucleotide (CAG) repeat in exon 1 of the huntingtin gene (Htt). This expansion creates a toxic polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein (HTT). Currently, there is no treatment for either the progression or prevention of the disease. RNA interference (RNAi) technology has shown promise in transgenic mouse models of HD by reducing expression of mutant HTT and slowing disease progression. The advancement of RNAi therapies to human clinical trials is hampered by problems delivering RNAi to affected neurons in a robust and sustainable manner. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have demonstrated a strong safety profile in both completed and numerous ongoing clinical trials. MSC exhibit a number of innate therapeutic effects, such as immune system modulation, homing to injury, and cytokine release into damaged microenvironments. The ability of MSC to transfer larger molecules and even organelles suggested their potential usefulness as delivery vehicles for therapeutic RNA inhibition. In a series of model systems we have found evidence that MSC can transfer RNAi targeting both reporter genes and mutant huntingtin in neural cell lines. MSC expressing shRNA antisense to GFP were found to decrease expression of GFP in SH-SY5Y cells after co-culture when assayed by flow cytometry. Additionally MSC expressing shRNA antisense to HTT were able to decrease levels of mutant HTT expressed in both U87 and SH-SY5Y target cells when assayed by Western blot and densitometry. These results are encouraging for expanding the therapeutic abilities of both RNAi and MSC for future treatments of Huntington's disease.Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 12/2011; 49(3):271-81. DOI:10.1016/j.mcn.2011.12.001 · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this review, we summarize the research progress in understanding the physiology of bone cells interacting with different mechanical/physical environments during bone tissue regeneration/repair. We first introduce the cellular composition of the bone tissue and the mechanism of the physiological bone regeneration/repair process. We then describe the properties and development of biomaterials for bone tissue engineering, followed by the highlighting of research progresses on the cellular response to mechanical environmental cues. Finally, several latest advancements in bone tissue regeneration and remaining challenges in the field are discussed for future research directions.Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering 12/2011; 4(4). DOI:10.1007/s12195-011-0204-9 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) encompass more than 50 distinct diseases, caused by defects in various aspects of lysosomal function. Neurodegeneration and/or dysmyelination are the hallmark of roughly 70% of LSDs. Gene therapy represents a promising approach for the treatment of CNS manifestations in LSDs, as it has the potential to provide a permanent source of the deficient enzyme, either by direct injection of vectors or by transplantation of gene-corrected cells. In this latter approach, the biology of neural stem/progenitor cells and hematopoietic cells might be exploited. AREAS COVERED: Based on an extensive literature search up until March 2011, the author reviews and discusses the progress, the crucial aspects and the major challenges towards the development of novel gene therapy strategies aimed to target the CNS, with particular attention to direct intracerebral gene delivery and transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells. EXPERT OPINION: The implementation of viral vector delivery systems with specific tropism, regulated transgene expression, low immunogenicity and low genotoxic risk and the improvement in isolation and manipulation of relevant cell types to be transplanted, are fundamental challenges to the field. Also, combinatorial strategies might be required to achieve full correction in LSDs with neurological involvement.Expert opinion on biological therapy 05/2011; 11(9):1153-67. DOI:10.1517/14712598.2011.582036 · 3.65 Impact Factor