Mesenchymal stem cells for the sustained in vivo delivery of bioactive factors.
ABSTRACT Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a promising tool for cell therapy, either through direct contribution to the repair of bone, tendon and cartilage or as an adjunct therapy through protein production and immune mediation. They are an attractive vehicle for cellular therapies due to a variety of cell intrinsic and environmentally responsive properties. Following transplantation, MSC are capable of systemic migration, are not prone to tumor formation, and appear to tolerize the immune response across donor mismatch. These attributes combine to allow MSC to reside in many different tissue types without disrupting the local microenvironment and, in some cases, responding to the local environment with appropriate protein secretion. We describe work done by our group and others in using human MSC for the sustained in vivo production of supraphysiological levels of cytokines for the support of cotransplanted hematopoietic stem cells and enzymes that are deficient in animal models of lysosomal storage disorders such as MPSVII. In addition, the use of MSC engineered to secrete protein products has been reviewed in several fields of tissue injury repair, including but not limited to revascularization after myocardial infarction, regeneration of intervertebral disc defects and spine therapy, repair of stroke, therapy for epilepsy, skeletal tissue repair, chondrogenesis/knee and joint repair, and neurodegenerative diseases. Genetically engineered MSC have thus proven safe and efficacious in numerous animal models of disease modification and tissue repair and are poised to be tested in human clinical trials. The potential for these interesting cells to secrete endogenous or transgene products in a sustained and long-term manner is highly promising and is discussed in the current review.
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ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are complex neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by dysfunctions in social interactions, abnormal to absent verbal communication, restricted interests, and repetitive stereotypic verbal and non-verbal behaviors, influencing the ability to relate to and communicate. The core symptoms of ASDs concern the cognitive, emotional, and neurobehavioural domains. The prevalence of autism appears to be increasing at an alarming rate, yet there is a lack of effective and definitive pharmacological options. This has created an increased sense of urgency, and the need to identify novel therapies. Given the growing awareness of immune dysregulation in a significant portion of the autistic population, cell therapies have been proposed and applied to ASDs. In particular, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess the immunological properties which make them promising candidates in regenerative medicine. MSC therapy may be applicable to several diseases associated with inflammation and tissue damage, where subsequent regeneration and repair is necessary. MSCs could exert a positive effect in ASDs through the following mechanisms: stimulation of repair in the damaged tissue, e.g., inflammatory bowel disease; synthesizing and releasing anti-inflammatory cytokines and survival-promoting growth factors; integrating into existing neural and synaptic network, and restoring plasticity. The paracrine mechanisms of MSCs show interesting potential in ASD treatment. Promising and impressive results have been reported from the few clinical studies published to date, although the exact mechanisms of action of MSCs in ASDs to restore functions are still largely unknown. The potential role of MSCs in mediating ASD recovery is discussed in light of the newest findings from recent clinical studies.04/2014; 6(2):173-178. DOI:10.4252/wjsc.v6.i2.173
Autism 04/2013; 1(1):9. · 2.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Paclitaxel, a powerful anti-neoplastic drug, often causes pathological pain, which significantly reduces the quality of life in patients. Paclitaxel-induced pain includes pain that occurs immediately after paclitaxel treatment (paclitaxel-associated acute pain syndrome, P-APS) and pain that persists for weeks to years after cessation of paclitaxel treatment (paclitaxel induced chronic neuropathic pain). Mechanisms underlying P-APS remain unknown. In this study, we found that paclitaxel causes acute pain in rodents in a dose-dependent manner. The paclitaxel-induced acute pain occurs within 2 hrs after a single intravenous injection of paclitaxel. This is accompanied by low levels of paclitaxel penetrating into the cerebral spinal fluid and spinal dorsal horn. We demonstrated that an intrathecal injection of paclitaxel induces mechanical allodynia in a dose-dependent manner. Paclitaxel causes activation of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the spinal dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglions. Through activating TLR4, paclitaxel increases glutamatergic synaptic activities and reduces glial glutamate transporter activities in the dorsal horn. Activations of TLR4 are necessary in the genesis of paclitaxel-induced acute pain. The cellular and molecular signaling pathways revealed in this study could provide rationales for the development of analgesics and management strategies for P-APS in patients.Molecular Pain 12/2015; 11(1):5. DOI:10.1186/s12990-015-0005-6 · 3.53 Impact Factor