Article

The Q fever epidemic in The Netherlands: history, onset, response and reflection.

Department of Bacteriology and TSEs, Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen UR, Lelystad, The Netherlands.
Epidemiology and Infection (Impact Factor: 2.49). 10/2010; 139(1):1-12. DOI: 10.1017/S0950268810002268
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The 2007-2009 human Q fever epidemic in The Netherlands attracted attention due to its magnitude and duration. The current epidemic and the historical background of Q fever in The Netherlands are reviewed according to national and international publications. Seroprevalence studies suggest that Q fever was endemic in The Netherlands several decades before the disease was diagnosed in dairy goats and dairy sheep. This was in 2005 and the increase in humans started in 2007. Q fever abortions were registered on 30 dairy goat and dairy sheep farms between 2005 and 2009. A total of 3523 human cases were notified between 2007 and 2009. Proximity to aborting small ruminants and high numbers of susceptible humans are probably the main causes of the human Q fever outbreak in The Netherlands. In general good monitoring and surveillance systems are necessary to assess the real magnitude of Q fever.

Full-text

Available from: Hendrik-Jan Roest, Aug 08, 2014
2 Followers
 · 
199 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Following a large Q fever outbreak in the Netherlands, patients at risk for chronic Q fever received a whole-cell Q fever vaccine. Sensitized people were excluded based on pre-vaccination screening with skin test (ST) and serology. An investigational IFN-γ-production assay was added. No previous experience existed for Q fever vaccination in this patient risk-group with predefined cardiac valvular anomalies or aortic aneurysm/prosthesis and many co-morbidities. We studied the adverse events (AE) and their association with patient characteristics and immunological parameters.
    Vaccine 10/2014; 32(49). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.09.061 · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study attempted to develop a list of priority pathogens. It is part of a European Union (EU) project dedicated to the surveillance of emerging or re-emerging pathogens of wildlife. Partners of the consortium established an initial list of 138 pathogens of concern, which was reduced to a smaller list of 65 pathogens likely to affect ruminants (i.e., the most costly animal group in the EU over the last 15 years). These 65 pathogens underwent a two-step, expert-based risk analysis: 92 experts graded them with respect to their global importance for animal welfare, species conservation, trade/economic impacts and public health. In step 2, the top 15 pathogens from step 1 were assessed by 69 experts considering seven weighted epidemiological criteria (pathogen variability, host specificity, potential for contagion, speed of spread, presence in Europe, difficulty of surveillance in wildlife and persistence in the environment) for which four options were possible. The responses concerned a wide geographic coverage. The resulting top-list pathogens were ranked as follows: 1. Salmonella enterica, 2. Coxiella burnetii, 3. foot-and-mouth disease virus, 4. Mycobacterium bovis, 5. bluetongue virus, and 6. European tick-borne encephalitis virus. The influence of the characteristics of the respondents, the importance of the levels of uncertainty/variability and the implication of the results are discussed. This work highlights the relevance of developing such lists for preparedness.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 12/2014; 118(4). DOI:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2014.11.021 · 2.51 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Little is known about the development of chronic Q fever in occupational risk groups. The aim of this study was to perform long-term follow-up of Coxiella burnetii seropositive veterinarians and investigate the course of IgG phase I and phase II antibodies against C. burnetii antigens and to compare this course with that in patients previously diagnosed with acute Q fever. METHODS: Veterinarians with IgG phase I >/=1:256 (immunofluorescence assay) that participated in a previous seroprevalence study were asked to provide a second blood sample three years later. IgG antibody profiles were compared to a group of acute Q fever patients who had IgG phase I >/=1:256 twelve months after diagnosis. RESULTS: IgG phase I was detected in all veterinarians (n = 76) and in 85% of Q fever patients (n = 98) after three years (p<0.001). IgG phase I >/=1:1,024, indicating possible chronic Q fever, was found in 36% of veterinarians and 12% of patients (OR 3.95, 95% CI: 1.84-8.49). CONCLUSIONS: IgG phase I persists among veterinarians presumably because of continuous exposure to C. burnetii during their work. Serological and clinical follow-up of occupationally exposed risk groups should be considered.
    PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(1-1):e0116937. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0116937 · 3.53 Impact Factor