Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI): A review of available techniques

Radiation Oncology Department, Texas Oncology Tyler, 910 East Houston Street, Tyler, Texas, USA.
Radiation Oncology (Impact Factor: 2.36). 10/2010; 5:90. DOI: 10.1186/1748-717X-5-90
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Breast conservation therapy (BCT) is the procedure of choice for the management of the early stage breast cancer. However, its utilization has not been maximized because of logistics issues associated with the protracted treatment involved with the radiation treatment. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) is an approach that treats only the lumpectomy bed plus a 1-2 cm margin, rather than the whole breast. Hence because of the small volume of irradiation a higher dose can be delivered in a shorter period of time. There has been growing interest for APBI and various approaches have been developed under phase I-III clinical studies; these include multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy, balloon catheter brachytherapy, conformal external beam radiation therapy and intra-operative radiation therapy (IORT). Balloon-based brachytherapy approaches include Mammosite, Axxent electronic brachytherapy and Contura, Hybrid brachytherapy devices include SAVI and ClearPath. This paper reviews the different techniques, identifying the weaknesses and strength of each approach and proposes a direction for future research and development. It is evident that APBI will play a role in the management of a selected group of early breast cancer. However, the relative role of the different techniques is yet to be clearly identified.

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Available from: Chris Njeh, Mar 11, 2015
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    • "The dose is generally delivered by intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) using two tangential beams. Furthermore, in low-risk breast cancer patients, accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) studies using IMRT are ongoing (Oliver et al 2007, Njeh et al 2010, Livi et al 2010, Lewin et al 2012, Saikh et al 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: The UMC Utrecht MRI/linac (MRL) design provides image guidance with high soft-tissue contrast, directly during radiotherapy (RT). Breast cancer patients are a potential group to benefit from better guidance in the MRL. However, due to the electron return effect, the skin dose can be increased in presence of a magnetic field. Since large skin areas are generally involved in breast RT, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effects on the skin dose, for whole-breast irradiation (WBI) and accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI). In ten patients with early-stage breast cancer, targets and organs at risk (OARs) were delineated on postoperative CT scans co-registered with MRI. The OARs included the skin, comprising the first 5 mm of ipsilateral-breast tissue, plus extensions. Three intensity-modulated RT techniques were considered (2× WBI, 1× APBI). Individual beam geometries were used for all patients. Specially developed MRL treatment-planning software was used. Acceptable plans were generated for 0 T, 0.35 T and 1.5 T, using a class solution. The skin dose was augmented in WBI in the presence of a magnetic field, which is a potential drawback, whereas in APBI the induced effects were negligible. This opens possibilities for developing MR-guided partial-breast treatments in the MRL.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 08/2013; 58(17):5917-5930. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/58/17/5917 · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    • "Intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy (IOERT) is an emerging technique for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]. If compared with other APBI techniques, IOERT has some definite advantage including an excellent sparing of normal tissues due to the electrons steep absorbed dose fall-off and to the opportunity to insert a shielding disk above the chest wall. "
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    ABSTRACT: To optimize the dose delivery to the breast lumpectomy target treated with intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy (IOERT). Two tools have been developed in our MU calculation software NEMO X to improve the dose homogeneity and the in-vivo dosimetry effectiveness for IOERT treatments. Given the target (tumor bed) thickness measured by the surgeon, NEMO X can provide auto dose normalization to cover 95% of the target volume with 95% of the prescription dose (PD) and a "best guess" of the expected dosimeter dose (EDD) for a deep seated in-vivo dosimeter. The tools have been validated with the data of 91 patients treated with IOERT on a LIAC mobile accelerator. In-vivo dosimetry has been performed with microMOSFETs positioned on the shielding disk inserted between the tumor bed and the chest wall. On average the auto normalization showed to provide better results if compared to conventional normalization rules in terms of mean target dose (|MTD-PD|/PD ≤ 5% in 95% vs. 53% of pts) and V107 percentage (left angle bracket V107 right angle bracket =19% vs. 32%). In-vivo dosimetry MOSFET dose (MD) showed a better correlation with the EDD guessed by our tool than just by assuming that EDD=PD (|MD-EDD|/EDD ≤ 5% in 57 vs. 26% of pts). NEMO X provides two useful tools for the on-line optimization of the dose delivery in IOERT. This optimization can help to reduce unnecessary large over-dosage regions and allows introducing reliable action levels for in-vivo dosimetry.
    Radiotherapy and Oncology 02/2012; 103(2):188-92. DOI:10.1016/j.radonc.2012.01.009 · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is under evaluation in breast-conserving surgery because the feasibility of the IORT procedure including transportation of the patient under general anesthesia is not well established. Thus, this prospective single-center study aimed to test the feasibility of IORT at a single dose of 21 Gy in Japanese breast cancer patients. Methods The primary endpoint was early toxicity; the secondary endpoint was late toxicity. Patients with histologically or cytologically proven primary early breast cancer were eligible. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) T < 2.5 cm; (2) desire for breast-conserving surgery; (3) age >50 years; (4) surgical margin >1 cm; (5) intraoperative pathologically free margins; and (6) sentinel node negative. Exclusion criteria were (1) contraindications to radiation therapy; (2) past radiation therapy for the same breast or chest; (3) extensive intraductal component; and (4) a tumor located in the axillary tail of the breast. All patients gave written informed consent. Partial resection was performed with at least a margin of 1 cm around the tumor. The patient was transported from the surgical suite to the radiation room. Radiation (Clinac® 21EX, Varian Medical Systems, Inc.) at 21 Gy was delivered directly to the mammary gland. Toxicity was evaluated with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events V4.0. Results Five patients were enrolled in this pilot study and received 21 Gy. Follow-up ranged from 7.8 to 11.0 months (median 10.2). Intraoperative transportation to the radiation room during the surgical procedure under general anesthesia was performed safely in all patients. Treatment-related toxicities within 3 months were deep connective tissue fibrosis (grade 1, n = 3) and pain (grade 1, n = 3). There was no case of wound infection, wound dehiscence, or soft tissue necrosis. Overall, there was no severe adverse event. Conclusions The procedure was tolerated very well in this first group of Japanese female patients treated with IORT, as was the case with European women. A longer follow-up is needed for the evaluation of any potential late side effects or recurrences. A phase II study is now being conducted for the next group of patients (UMIN000003578).
    Breast Cancer 09/2012; 21(4). DOI:10.1007/s12282-012-0412-8 · 1.51 Impact Factor