"Release of proteins, such as cytochrome c, along with increased Bax levels results in cell death through increased levels of key caspases. In contrast, B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL), an antiapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, is known to prevent cell death by inhibiting activation of the proapoptotic proteins [35,37-39]. These changes have been well studied in other diseases, as well as other cell types in diabetic retinopathy [34,36]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether β-adrenergic receptors require insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 activity to regulate apoptosis in retinal Müller cells.
Müller cells were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) medium grown in normal (5 mm) or high glucose (25 mM) conditions. The medium was supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics. Cells were allowed to reach 80%-90% confluence. After becoming appropriately confluent, cells were placed in medium with reduced serum (2%) for 18-24 h to eliminate any effects of fetal bovine serum. Cells were then transfected with 10 ug of IRS-1 small hairpin RNA (shRNA). Forty-eight hours following transfection, cells were lysed and harvested for protein analysis using western blotting. In additional experiments, some cells were treated with 10 uM salmeterol for 24 h following transfection with IRS-1 shRNA. To determine whether IRS-1 directly regulates apoptotic events in the insulin-signaling pathway in retinal Müller cells, a cell death assay kit was used. In tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α inhibitory studies, cells were treated with 5 ng/ml of TNFα alone for 30 min or 30 min pretreatment with TNFα followed by salmeterol for 4 h.
Müller cells treated with 5 ng/ml TNFα in 25 mM glucose significantly increased phosphorylation of IRS-1(Ser307). Treatment with the selective beta-2-adrenergic receptor agonist, salmeterol, significantly decreased phosphorylation of IRS-1(Ser307). Following IRS-1 shRNA transfection+salmeterol treatment, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and cytochrome c levels were significantly decreased. Salmeterol+IRS-1 shRNA also decreased cell death and increased protein levels of B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL), an anti-apoptotic factor.
In these studies, we show for the first time that salmeterol, a beta-2-adrenergic receptor agonist, can reduce retinal Müller cell death through IRS-1 actions. These findings also suggest the importance of IRS-1 in beta-adrenergic receptor signaling in the prevention of cell death in retinal Müller cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HQS-3 is a newly baicalein derivative with a benzene substitution. We investigated the anticancer effect of HQS-3 in vivo and in vitro. HQS-3 significantly decreased tumor growth in mice inoculated with Heps and HepG2 cells; and had little influence on the state and weight of animals. After treatment with 20 mg/kg HQS-3, the inhibitory rate of tumor weight in mice inoculated with Heps and HepG2 cells were 63.62% and 68.03%, respectively. Meanwhile, HQS-3 inhibited the viability of various kinds of tumor cells with IC50 values in the range of 22.98 to 54.32 μM after 48 h treatment measured by MTT-assay. HQS-3 remarkably inhibited viability of hepatoma cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner and induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells by DAPI staining and Annexin V/PI double staining. The apoptosis-induction effect of HQS-3 was attributed to its ability to modulate the actvity of caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP. Moreover, the expression of bax protein was increased while the bcl-2 protein was decreased, leading to an increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. The accumulation of ROS induced by HQS-3 in HepG2 cells was also observed. The further results suggested that HQS-3 induced mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis by increasing ROS level and inhibiting the expression of anti-oxidative protein SOD2. HQS-3 exerted anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo via inducing tumor cells apoptosis, and these results suggested that it deserves further investigation as a novel chemotherapy for human tumors.
European journal of pharmaceutical sciences: official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences 04/2013; 49(4). DOI:10.1016/j.ejps.2013.04.016 · 3.35 Impact Factor
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