[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Organotin-based antifouling paints are highly effective against most fouling organisms, and their application results in a large amount of savings for the shipping industry. On the other hand, TBT (tributyltin) in antifouling paints is described as the most toxic substance ever introduced into the marine environment. Consequential environmental impacts of TBT led to its regulation in many countries, although concerns were raised regarding the complete prohibition of organotin-based compounds in antifouling paints. Serious concerns were also raised regarding the complete banning of organotins. After long deliberations, the AFS Convention (convention to control the use of harmful antifouling systems on ships) was adopted on 5 October 2001. The Convention, which prohibits the use of harmful organotins in antifouling paints used on ships, will enter into force on 17 September 2008. In view of the concerns raised against the prohibition of organotin-based compounds in antifouling paints, this paper focuses on a review of the AFS Convention, with a gap analysis on the difficulties in implementation of the Convention. It also offers some recommendations for improved policies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trade in hazardous waste has given rise to great concerns. One source of transboundary trade in hazardous waste is the ship-breaking
industry. Though end-of-life vessels provide incentives to developing countries in the form of raw materials, these same developing
countries are not only ill equipped to manage hazardous waste in an environmentally sound manner, but they also lack the resources
to mitigate health impacts arising out of the handling of hazardous waste. These concerns of weaker economies have been addressed
by the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal. However, the shipping
of vessels with hazardous waste for final disposal in developing countries continues. To illustrate the inequity involved
in such negotiations, we present a case study of the French aircraft carrier “Le Clemenceau”, which was sent to a shipyard in Alang, India, for disposal. This vessel became the focus of attention given its transport
of an unknown amount of toxic waste, including asbestos. Similarly, there are reports that large quantities of toxic waste
are still being imported by India from countries that ban the use of this waste. The use, import, and export of these chemicals
raise serious environmental and health concerns. This paper assesses the implications of shipping such hazardous waste to
developing countries and emphasizes the need for promoting research to plug the gaps and for implementing stringent measures
to check the trade in environmental pollutants.
International Environmental Agreements 01/2008; 8(2):143-159. · 1.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There have been significant changes in the nature of shipping services in recent years. These have been most notably in the liner segment, but other parts of the market have not remained static. Technology shifts have been responsible for some of the change, but there have also been developments in institutional structures and managerial approaches. The economic drivers behind the sector, however, remain relatively poorly understood, despite a copious literature on shipping. Managerial economics has tended to put emphasis on the emergence of more sophisticated logistics structures and the role of information to tighten the overall supply chain. Industrial economists have been concerned with technical change and in particular with its interaction with more liberal markets structures. Often tied with this has been interest in the underlying nature of shipping markets (e.g. competitive, monopolistic or contestable) and, depending on the outcome, whether there is price leadership, collusion, predatory behaviour or whatever. Much of this work has been aspatial, treating shipping as any other industry with distance between demand and supply ignored or incorporated in a very simplistic manner. Environmental economists have focused on matters of fuel efficiency and pollution. This paper takes a broad overview of shipping economics in the context of the larger institutional framework within which it operates. It seeks broader analysis within an institutional economics framework, but also highlights some of the problems of achieving this.
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