Epidemiology of shingles.

Cirencester Epidemiological, Research Unit, 86 Dyer Street, Cirencester GL7 2PF.
Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.12). 03/1991; 84(3):184.
Source: PubMed
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    Herpes: the journal of the IHMF 01/2006; 12(3):59.
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    ABSTRACT: The efficiency of inhibitory pain descending pathways (evaluated using conditioned pain modulation [CPM]) has not been studied in postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). To compare CPM in PHN patients with healthy controls. Nine PHN patients and nine control individuals were matched according to age and sex. Amplitudes of cortical thermal-evoked potentials were recorded on the surface of the scalp; clinical pain and thermal pain were evaluated on a 0 to 10 numerical rating scale, at baseline and at intervals during the 6 min after CPM (elicited by a cold pressor test, 8°C). A battery of cognitive tests was performed. Amplitude differences, percentages and related areas under the curve (AUC CPM<⁄span>) were calculated and all data were compared between both groups; P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. AUC CPM0-6 min<⁄span> was significantly lower in PHN patients compared with controls (-39±51 µV⁄min versus -144±66 µV⁄min; P=0.0012) and correlated (P=0.04) with clinical pain intensity. Pain ratings before CPM were similar in both groups but were significantly lower in the control group 3 min after the cold pressor test. Cognitive test results were not significantly different. Psychophysical and electrophysiological approaches have shown that patients with PHN exhibit a deficiency of pain inhibition modulation, which could signal a predisposing factor to developing chronic pain. This deficiency was not linked to the cognitive performance but rather to subtle in situ cognitivoemotional adaptations, which remain to be investigated.
    01/2014; 19(1).
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    ABSTRACT: The main objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the economic burden of Herpes Zoster (HZ) infection. The review was conducted in accordance with the standards of the "Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses" guidelines. The following databases were accessed: ISI/Web of Knowledge (WoS), MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, the Cochrane Library and EconLit. Specific literature on health economics was also manually inspected. Thirty-three studies were included. The quality of the studies assessed in accordance with the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist was good. All studies evaluated direct costs, apart from one which dealt only with indirect costs. Indirect costs were evaluated by 12 studies. The economic burden of HZ has increased over time. HZ management and drug prescriptions generate the highest direct costs. While increasing age, co-morbidities and drug treatment were found to predict higher direct costs, being employed was correlated with higher indirect costs, and thus with the onset age of the disease. Despite some differences among the selected studies, particularly with regard to indirect costs, all concur that HZ is a widespread disease which has a heavy social and economic burden.
    Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics 08/2014; 11(1):e36160. DOI:10.4161/hv.36160 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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