Identification and characterization of the propanediol utilization protein PduP of Lactobacillus reuteri for 3-hydroxypropionic acid production from glycerol.
ABSTRACT Although the de novo biosynthetic mechanism of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) in glycerol-fermenting microorganisms is still unclear, the propanediol utilization protein (PduP) of Lactobacillus species has been suggested to be a key enzyme in this regard. To verify this hypothesis, a pduP gene from Lactobacillus reuteri was cloned and expressed, and the encoded protein was characterized. Recombinant L. reuteri PduP exhibited broad substrate specificity including 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde and utilized both NAD(+) and NADP(+) as a cofactor. Among various aldehyde substrates tested, the specific activity was highest for propionaldehyde, at pH 7.8 and 37 °C. The K(m) and V(max) values for propionaldehyde in the presence of NAD(+) were 1.18 mM and 0.35 U mg⁻¹, respectively. When L. reuteri pduP was overexpressed in Klebsiella pneumoniae, 3-HP production remarkably increased as compared to the wild-type strain (from 0.18 g L⁻¹ to 0.72 g L⁻¹) under shake-flask culture conditions, and the highest titer (1.38 g L⁻¹ 3-HP) was produced by the recombinant strain under batch fermentation conditions in a bioreactor. This is the first report stating the enzymatic properties of PduP protein and the probable role in biosynthesis of 3-HP in glycerol fermentation.