Although the de novo biosynthetic mechanism of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) in glycerol-fermenting microorganisms is still unclear, the propanediol utilization protein (PduP) of Lactobacillus species has been suggested to be a key enzyme in this regard. To verify this hypothesis, a pduP gene from Lactobacillus reuteri was cloned and expressed, and the encoded protein was characterized. Recombinant L. reuteri PduP exhibited broad substrate specificity including 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde and utilized both NAD(+) and NADP(+) as a cofactor. Among various aldehyde substrates tested, the specific activity was highest for propionaldehyde, at pH 7.8 and 37 °C. The K(m) and V(max) values for propionaldehyde in the presence of NAD(+) were 1.18 mM and 0.35 U mg⁻¹, respectively. When L. reuteri pduP was overexpressed in Klebsiella pneumoniae, 3-HP production remarkably increased as compared to the wild-type strain (from 0.18 g L⁻¹ to 0.72 g L⁻¹) under shake-flask culture conditions, and the highest titer (1.38 g L⁻¹ 3-HP) was produced by the recombinant strain under batch fermentation conditions in a bioreactor. This is the first report stating the enzymatic properties of PduP protein and the probable role in biosynthesis of 3-HP in glycerol fermentation.
"In contrast, when resting cells are used, this reaction will proceed only until all the NADH molecules available in the cells are consumed. At this point, the role of the oxidative pathway is very important through which 3HPA is oxidized in a three-step reaction catalyzed by CoA-dependent propionaldehyde dehydrogenase (PduP), phosphotransacylase (PduL) and propionate kinase (PduW), respectively, to 3HP with 3HP-CoA and 3HP-phosphate as intermediates, and utilizing NAD+ to yield NADH resulting in a balance of redox equivalents
[33,42]. The overall balance of reducing equivalents would result in the equimolar production of the hydroxyacid and the diol. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Lactobacillus reuteri converts glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP) and 1,3-propanediol (1,3PDO) via 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3HPA) as an intermediate using enzymes encoded in its propanediol-utilization (pdu) operon. Since 3HP, 1,3PDO and 3HPA are important building blocks for the bio-based chemical industry, L. reuteri can be an attractive candidate for their production. However, little is known about the kinetics of glycerol utilization in the Pdu pathway in L. reuteri. In this study, the metabolic fluxes through the Pdu pathway were determined as a first step towards optimizing the production of 3HPA, and co-production of 3HP and 1,3PDO from glycerol. Resting cells of wild-type (DSM 20016) and recombinant (RPRB3007, with overexpressed pdu operon) strains were used as biocatalysts.
The conversion rate of glycerol to 3HPA by the resting cells of L. reuteri was evaluated by in situ complexation of the aldehyde with carbohydrazide to avoid the aldehyde-mediated inactivation of glycerol dehydratase. Under operational conditions, the specific 3HPA production rate of the RPRB3007 strain was 1.9 times higher than that of the wild-type strain (1718.2 versus 889.0 mg/gCDW.h, respectively). Flux analysis of glycerol conversion to 1,3PDO and 3HP in the cells using multi-step variable-volume fed-batch operation showed that the maximum specific production rates of 3HP and 1,3PDO were 110.8 and 93.7 mg/gCDW.h, respectively, for the wild-type strain, and 179.2 and 151.4 mg/gCDW.h, respectively, for the RPRB3007 strain. The cumulative molar yield of the two compounds was ~1 mol/mol glycerol and their molar ratio was ~1 mol3HP/mol1,3PDO. A balance of redox equivalents between the glycerol oxidative and reductive pathway branches led to equimolar amounts of the two products.
Metabolic flux analysis was a useful approach for finding conditions for maximal conversion of glycerol to 3HPA, 3HP and 1,3PDO. Improved specific production rates were obtained with resting cells of the engineered RPRB3007 strain, highlighting the potential of metabolic engineering to render an industrially sound strain. This is the first report on the production of 3HP and 1,3PDO as sole products using the wild-type or mutant L. reuteri strains, and has laid ground for further work on improving the productivity of the biotransformation process using resting cells.
"Aldehyde dehydrogenase converts 3-HPA to 3-HP and is specific for NAD + cofactor. To date, aldehyde dehydrogenases with 3-HPA oxidation activity have been identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ADH4) (Suthers and Cameron, 2005), E. coli K-12 (AldH) (Jo et al., 2008), L. reuteri (PduP) (Luo et al., 2011), K. pneumoniae (PuuC) and Azospirillum brasilense (KGSADH) (Ko et al., 2012). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) is a value-added chemical for polymer synthesis. For biosynthesis of 3-HP from glycerol, two dhaB and dhaR clusters encoding glycerol dehydratase and its reactivating factor, respectively, were cloned from Lactobacillus brevis KCTC33069 and expressed in Escherichia coli. Coexpression of dhaB and dhaR allowed the recombinant E. coli to convert glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, an intermediate of 3-HP biosynthesis. To produce 3-HP from glycerol, fed-batch fermentation with a two-step feeding strategy was designed to separate the cell growth from the 3-HP production stages. Finally, E. coli JHS00947 expressing L .brevis dhaB and dhaR, and E. coli aldH produced 14.3g/L 3-HP with 0.26g/L-h productivity, which were 14.6 and 8.53 times higher than those of the batch culture. In conclusion, overexpression of L. brevis dhaB and dhaR clusters and E. coli aldH, and implementation of the two-step feeding strategy enabled recombinant E. coli to convert glycerol to 3-HP efficiently.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nonlinear problem of pulse train deinterleaving is mapped into
that of line detection in a plane. The image processing technique known
as the Hough transform is then applied. The problem is now one of peak
detection and the selection of a threshold is examined
Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 1994. ICASSP-94., 1994 IEEE International Conference on; 05/1994
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