Identification and characterization of the propanediol utilization protein PduP of Lactobacillus reuteri for 3-hydroxypropionic acid production from glycerol.
ABSTRACT Although the de novo biosynthetic mechanism of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) in glycerol-fermenting microorganisms is still unclear, the propanediol utilization protein (PduP) of Lactobacillus species has been suggested to be a key enzyme in this regard. To verify this hypothesis, a pduP gene from Lactobacillus reuteri was cloned and expressed, and the encoded protein was characterized. Recombinant L. reuteri PduP exhibited broad substrate specificity including 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde and utilized both NAD(+) and NADP(+) as a cofactor. Among various aldehyde substrates tested, the specific activity was highest for propionaldehyde, at pH 7.8 and 37 °C. The K(m) and V(max) values for propionaldehyde in the presence of NAD(+) were 1.18 mM and 0.35 U mg⁻¹, respectively. When L. reuteri pduP was overexpressed in Klebsiella pneumoniae, 3-HP production remarkably increased as compared to the wild-type strain (from 0.18 g L⁻¹ to 0.72 g L⁻¹) under shake-flask culture conditions, and the highest titer (1.38 g L⁻¹ 3-HP) was produced by the recombinant strain under batch fermentation conditions in a bioreactor. This is the first report stating the enzymatic properties of PduP protein and the probable role in biosynthesis of 3-HP in glycerol fermentation.
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ABSTRACT: Lactobacillus reuteri converts glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP) and 1,3-propanediol (1,3PDO) via 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3HPA) as an intermediate using enzymes encoded in its propanediol-utilization (pdu) operon. Since 3HP, 1,3PDO and 3HPA are important building blocks for the bio-based chemical industry, L. reuteri can be an attractive candidate for their production. However, little is known about the kinetics of glycerol utilization in the Pdu pathway in L. reuteri. In this study, the metabolic fluxes through the Pdu pathway were determined as a first step towards optimizing the production of 3HPA, and co-production of 3HP and 1,3PDO from glycerol. Resting cells of wild-type (DSM 20016) and recombinant (RPRB3007, with overexpressed pdu operon) strains were used as biocatalysts.Microbial Cell Factories 05/2014; 13(1):76. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Klebsiella pneumoniae synthesize large amounts of L-2,3-butanediol (L-2,3-BD), but the underlying mechanism has been unknown. In this study, we provide the first identification and characterization of an L-2,3-BD dehydrogenase from K. pneumoniae, demonstrating its reductive activities toward diacetyl and acetoin, and oxidative activity toward L-2,3-BD. Optimum pH, temperature, and kinetics determined for reductive and oxidative reactions support the preferential production of 2,3-BD during cell growth. Synthesis of L-2,3-BD was remarkably enhanced by increasing gene dosage, reaching levels that, to the best of our knowledge, are the highest achieved to date.Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 07/2014; · 2.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bacterial microcompartments (MCPs) are sophisticated protein-based organelles used to optimize metabolic pathways. They consist of metabolic enzymes encapsulated within a protein shell, which creates an ideal environment for catalysis and facilitates the channeling of toxic/volatile intermediates to downstream enzymes. The metabolic processes that require MCPs are diverse and widely distributed and play important roles in global carbon fixation and bacterial pathogenesis. The protein shells of MCPs are thought to selectively control the movement of enzyme cofactors, substrates, and products (including toxic or volatile intermediates) between the MCP interior and the cytoplasm of the cell using both passive electrostatic/steric and dynamic gated mechanisms. Evidence suggests that specialized shell proteins conduct electrons between the cytoplasm and the lumen of the MCP and/or help rebuild damaged iron-sulfur centers in the encapsulated enzymes. The MCP shell is elaborated through a family of small proteins whose structural core is known as a bacterial microcompartment (BMC) domain. BMC domain proteins oligomerize into flat, hexagonally shaped tiles, which assemble into extended protein sheets that form the facets of the shell. Shape complementarity along the edges allows different types of BMC domain proteins to form mixed sheets, while sequence variation provides functional diversification. Recent studies have also revealed targeting sequences that mediate protein encapsulation within MCPs, scaffolding proteins that organize lumen enzymes and the use of private cofactor pools (NAD/H and coenzyme A [HS-CoA]) to facilitate cofactor homeostasis. Although much remains to be learned, our growing understanding of MCPs is providing a basis for bioengineering of protein-based containers for the production of chemicals/pharmaceuticals and for use as molecular delivery vehicles.Microbiology and molecular biology reviews: MMBR 09/2014; 78(3):438-468. · 12.59 Impact Factor