Macrophages recruited via CCR2 produce insulin-like growth factor-1 to repair acute skeletal muscle injury.
ABSTRACT CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) is essential to acute skeletal muscle injury repair. We studied the subpopulation of inflammatory cells recruited via CCR2 signaling and their cellular functions with respect to muscle regeneration. Mobilization of monocytes/macrophages (MOs/MPs), but not lymphocytes or neutrophils, was impaired from bone marrow to blood and from blood to injured muscle in Ccr2(-/-) mice. While the Ly-6C(+) but not the Ly-6C(-) subset of MOs/MPs was significantly reduced in blood, both subsets were drastically reduced in injured muscle of Ccr2(-/-) mice. Expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) was markedly up-regulated in injured muscle of wild-type but not Ccr2(-/-) mice. IGF-I was strongly expressed by macrophages within injured muscle, more prominently by the Ly-6C(-) subset. A single injection of IGF-I, but not PBS, into injured muscle to replace IGF-I remarkably improved muscle regeneration in Ccr2(-/-) mice. CCR2 was not detected in myogenic cells or capillary endothelial cells in injured muscle to suggest its direct involvement in muscle regeneration or angiogenesis. We conclude that CCR2 is essential to acute skeletal muscle injury repair primarily by recruiting Ly-6C(+) MOs/MPs. Within injured muscle, these cells conduct phagocytosis, contribute to accumulation of intramuscular Ly-6C(-) macrophages, and produce a high level of IGF-I to promote muscle regeneration.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate chemokine profiles and their functional roles in the early phase of fracture healing in mouse models.PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e104954. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Myofiber necrosis and fibrosis are hallmarks of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), leading to lethal weakness of the diaphragm. Macrophages (MPs) are required for successful muscle regeneration, but the role of inflammatory monocyte (MO)-derived MPs in either promoting or mitigating DMD is unclear. We show that DMD (mdx) mouse diaphragms exhibit greatly increased expression of CCR2 and its chemokine ligands, along with inflammatory (Ly6Chigh) MO recruitment and accumulation of CD11bhigh MO-derived MPs. Loss-of-function of CCR2 preferentially reduced this CD11bhigh MP population by impeding the release of Ly6Chigh MOs from the bone marrow but not the splenic reservoir. CCR2 deficiency also helped restore the MP polarization balance by preventing excessive skewing of MPs toward a proinflammatory phenotype. These effects were linked to amelioration of histopathological features and increased muscle strength in the diaphragm. Chronic inhibition of CCR2 signaling by mutated CCL2 secreted from implanted mesenchymal stem cells resulted in similar improvements. These data uncover a previously unrecognized role of inflammatory MOs in DMD pathogenesis and indicate that CCR2 inhibition could offer a novel strategy for DMD management.EMBO Molecular Medicine 10/2014; · 7.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inflammatory microenvironments play a key role in skeletal muscle regeneration. The infiltration of CD8 T cells into injured muscle has been reported. However, the role of CD8 T cells during skeletal muscle regeneration remains unclear. In this study, we used cardiotoxin-induced mouse skeletal muscle injury/regeneration model to investigate the role of CD8 T cells. Muscle regeneration was impaired and matrix deposit was increased in CD8α-deficient mice compared with wild-type (WT) mice whose CD8 T cells were infiltrated into damaged muscle after cardiotoxin injection. Adoptive transfer of CD8 T cells to CD8α-deficient mice improved muscle regeneration and inhibited matrix remodeling. Compared with WT mice, CD8α deficiency limited the recruitment of Gr1(high) macrophages (MPs) into muscle, resulting in the reduction of satellite cell number. The expression of MCP-1 (MCP-1/CCL2), which regulates the migration of Gr1(high) MPs, was reduced in CD8α-deficient mice compared with WT mice. Coculture CD8 T cells with MPs promoted MCP-1 secretion. The i.m. injection of MCP-1 markedly promoted the recruitment of Gr1(high) MPs and improved muscle regeneration in CD8α-deficient mice. We conclude that CD8 T cells are involved in skeletal muscle regeneration by regulating the secretion of MCP-1 to recruit Gr1(high) MPs, which facilitate myoblast proliferation.Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 10/2014;