Prednisone plus cabazitaxel or mitoxantrone for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after docetaxel treatment: a randomised open-label trial

Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and The Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, UK.
The Lancet (Impact Factor: 39.21). 10/2010; 376(9747):1147-54. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61389-X
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cabazitaxel is a novel tubulin-binding taxane drug with antitumour activity in docetaxel-resistant cancers. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of cabazitaxel plus prednisone with those of mitoxantrone plus prednisone in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with progressive disease after docetaxel-based treatment.
We undertook an open-label randomised phase 3 trial in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who had received previous hormone therapy, but whose disease had progressed during or after treatment with a docetaxel-containing regimen. Participants were treated with 10 mg oral prednisone daily, and were randomly assigned to receive either 12 mg/m(2) mitoxantrone intravenously over 15-30 min or 25 mg/m(2) cabazitaxel intravenously over 1 h every 3 weeks. The random allocation schedule was computer-generated; patients and treating physicians were not masked to treatment allocation, but the study team was masked to the data analysis. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival and safety. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered at, NCT00417079.
755 men were allocated to treatment groups (377 mitoxantrone, 378 cabazitaxel) and were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. At the cutoff for the final analysis (Sept 25, 2009), median survival was 15·1 months (95% CI 14·1-16·3) in the cabazitaxel group and 12·7 months (11·6-13·7) in the mitoxantrone group. The hazard ratio for death of men treated with cabazitaxel compared with those taking mitoxantrone was 0·70 (95% CI 0·59-0·83, p<0·0001). Median progression-free survival was 2·8 months (95% CI 2·4-3·0) in the cabazitaxel group and 1·4 months (1·4-1·7) in the mitoxantrone group (HR 0·74, 0·64-0·86, p<0·0001). The most common clinically significant grade 3 or higher adverse events were neutropenia (cabazitaxel, 303 [82%] patients vs mitoxantrone, 215 [58%]) and diarrhoea (23 [6%] vs one [<1%]). 28 (8%) patients in the cabazitaxel group and five (1%) in the mitoxantrone group had febrile neutropenia.
Treatment with cabazitaxel plus prednisone has important clinical antitumour activity, improving overall survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer whose disease has progressed during or after docetaxel-based therapy.

1 Bookmark
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper was to evaluate the activity and tolerability of weekly docetaxel (D) combined with weekly epirubicin (EPI) in patients with advanced castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) previously exposed to D and abiraterone acetate (AA). Locally advanced or metastatic CRPC patients with 0-2 performance status, who had progressed after D and AA therapy, were included in the study. Previous treatment with chemotherapy agent cabazitaxel was also admitted. Treatment consisted of D 30 mg/m(2) intravenously (i.v.) and EPI 30 mg/m(2) i.v., every week (D/EPI). Chemotherapy was administered until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. In our institution, twenty-six patients received D/EPI: their median age was 72 years (range 59-83 years). Twenty-three (88.5 %) patients had bone metastases. A decrease in PSA levels ≥50 % was observed in seven patients (26.9 %, 95 % CI: 0.11-0.47); of these, five had achieved a ≥50 % PSA response during prior first-line D and six had achieved a PSA response during prior AA Among the subjects who were symptomatic at baseline, pain was reduced in nine patients (38.1 %) with a significant decrease in analgesic use. Median progression-free survival was 4.4 months (95 % CI, 3-5.2), and median overall survival was 10.7 months (95 % CI, 8.9-18.4). Treatment was well tolerated and no grade 4 toxicities were observed. Our findings suggest that weekly D/EPI is feasible and active in heavily pretreated advanced CRPC patients and seem to support the hypothesis that the addition of EPI to D may lead to overcome the resistance to D in a subgroup of patients.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Elucidating the determinants of aggressiveness in lethal prostate cancer may stimulate therapeutic strategies that improve clinical outcomes. We used experimental models and clinical databases to identify GATA2 as a regulator of chemotherapy resistance and tumorigenicity in this context. Mechanistically, direct upregulation of the growth hormone IGF2 emerged as a mediator of the aggressive properties regulated by GATA2. IGF2 in turn activated IGF1R and INSR as well as a downstream polykinase program. The characterization of this axis prompted a combination strategy whereby dual IGF1R/INSR inhibition restored the efficacy of chemotherapy and improved survival in preclinical models. These studies reveal a GATA2-IGF2 aggressiveness axis in lethal prostate cancer and identify a therapeutic opportunity in this challenging disease.
    Cancer cell 09/2015; 27(2):223-39. DOI:10.1016/j.ccell.2014.11.013 · 25.29 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate (18)F-labeled-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG-) and (18)F-labeled-sodium fluoride ((18)F-NaF-) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) as biomarkers in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Nine men (53-75 years) in a phase 1 trial of abiraterone and cabozantinib had (18)F-FDG-PET/CT, (18)F-NaF-PET/CT and standard imaging ((99m)Tc-labeled-methylene-diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) bone scan and abdominal/pelvic CT) at baseline and after 8 weeks of therapy. Baseline disease was classified as widespread (18)F-FDG-avid, oligometastatic (18)F-FDG-avid (1 site), or non-(18)F-FDG-avid. Metabolic response was classified using European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criteria. Treatment response using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1, Prostate Cancer Working Group 2 (PCWG2) guidelines and days on trial (DOT) were recorded. All men were followed for 1 year or until progression. Four men had (18)F-FDG-avid disease: two with widespread (DOT 53 and 76) and two with oligometastatic disease (DOT 231 and still on trial after 742+ days). Five men had non-(18)F-FDG-avid disease; three remained stable or improved (2 still on trial while one discontinued for non-oncologic reasons; DOT 225-563+), and 2 progressed (DOT 285 and 532). Despite the small sample size, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significant difference in progression free survival (PFS) between men with widespread (18)F-FDG-avid, oligometastatic (18)F-FDG-avid and non-(18)F-FDG-avid disease (p < 0.01). All men had (18)F-NaF-avid disease. Neither (18)F-NaF-avid disease extent nor intensity was predictive of treatment response. (18)F-FDG-PET/CT may be superior to (18)F-NaF-PET/CT and standard imaging in men with mCRPC on abiraterone and cabozantinib. (18)F-FDG-PET/CT may have potential to stratify men into 3 groups (widespread vs. oligometastatic (18)F-FDG-avid vs. non-(18)F-FDG-avid mCRPC) to tailor therapy. Further evaluation is warranted.
    American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 01/2015; 5(1):72-82. · 3.25 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 3, 2014