Microglia Shape Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis through Apoptosis-Coupled Phagocytosis
ABSTRACT In the adult hippocampus, neuroprogenitor cells in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus give rise to newborn neuroblasts. However, only a small subset of these cells integrates into the hippocampal circuitry as mature neurons at the end of a 4 week period. Here, we show that the majority of the newborn cells undergo death by apoptosis in the first 1 to 4 days of their life, during the transition from amplifying neuroprogenitors to neuroblasts. These apoptotic newborn cells are rapidly cleared out through phagocytosis by unchallenged microglia present in the adult SGZ niche. Phagocytosis by the microglia is efficient and undeterred by increased age or inflammatory challenge. Our results suggest that the main critical period of newborn cell survival occurs within a few days of birth and reveal a new role for microglia in maintaining the homeostasis of the baseline neurogenic cascade.
SourceAvailable from: Diego Gomez-Nicola[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Since the genome-wide association studies in Alzheimer's disease have highlighted inflammation as a driver of the disease rather than a consequence of the ongoing neurodegeneration, numerous studies have been performed to identify specific immune profiles associated with healthy, ageing, or diseased brain. However, these studies have been performed mainly in in vitro or animal models, which recapitulate only some aspects of the pathophysiology of human Alzheimer's disease. In this review, we discuss the availability of human post-mortem tissue through brain banks, the limitations associated with its use, the technical tools available, and the neuroimmune aspects to explore in order to validate in the human brain the experimental observations arising from animal models.Alzheimer's Research and Therapy 04/2015; 7(1):42. DOI:10.1186/s13195-015-0126-1 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neuropeptides are emerging as key regulators of stem cell niche activities in health and disease, both inside and outside the central nervous system (CNS). Among them, neuropeptide Y (NPY), one of the most abundant neuropeptides both in the nervous system and in non-neural districts, has become the focus of much attention for its involvement in a wide range of physiological and pathological conditions, including the modulation of different stem cell activities. In particular, a pro-neurogenic role of NPY has been evidenced in the neurogenic niche, where a direct effect on neural progenitors has been demonstrated, while different cellular types, including astrocytes, microglia and endothelial cells, also appear to be responsive to the peptide. The marked modulation of the NPY system during several pathological conditions that affect neurogenesis, including stress, seizures and neurodegeneration, further highlights the relevance of this peptide in the regulation of adult neurogenesis. In view of the considerable interest in understanding the mechanisms controlling neural cell fate, this review aims to summarize and discuss current data on NPY signaling in the different cellular components of the neurogenic niche in order to elucidate the complexity of the mechanisms underlying the modulatory properties of this peptide.Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 01/2015; 9:85. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2015.00085 · 4.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Discerning the biologic origins of neuroanatomical sex differences has been of interest since they were first reported in the late 60's and early 70's. The centrality of gonadal hormone exposure during a developmental critical window cannot be denied but hormones are indirect agents of change, acting to induce gene transcription or modulate membrane bound signaling cascades. Sex differences in the brain include regional volume differences due to differential cell death, neuronal and glial genesis, dendritic branching and synaptic patterning. Early emphasis on mechanism therefore focused on neurotransmitters and neural growth factors, but by and large these endpoints failed to explain the origins of neural sex differences. More recently evidence has accumulated in favor of inflammatory mediators and immune cells as principle regulators of brain sexual differentiation and reveal that the establishment of dimorphic circuits is not cell autonomous but instead requires extensive cell-to-cell communication including cells of non-neuronal origin. Despite the multiplicity of cells involved the nature of the sex differences in the neuroanatomical endpoints suggests canalization, a process that explains the robustness of individuals in the face of intrinsic and extrinsic variability. We propose that some neuroanatomical endpoints are canalized to enhance sex differences in the brain by reducing variability within one sex while also preventing the sexes from diverging too greatly. We further propose mechanisms by which such canalization could occur and discuss what relevance this may have to sex differences in behavior. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.Hormones and Behavior 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2015.04.013 · 4.51 Impact Factor