Cytokine Profiling in Acute Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury
ABSTRACT To evaluate the presence and relative concentrations of cytokines, known to be involved in the inflammatory cascade, in acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury.
We evaluated an extensive cytokine profile in synovial fluid from 12 patients with acute ACL injury undergoing arthroscopy compared with 15 control subjects using a BioPlex assay (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) to measure the concentration of 17 inflammatory cytokines.
In patients with acute ACL injury compared with asymptomatic control subjects, the following cytokines were identified at significantly increased concentrations (P < .001, Mann-Whitney U test) compared with control samples: interleukin 6 (105 ± 72 v 0 ± 0 pg/ml), interferon γ (1,544 ± 608 v 9 ± 7.5 pg/ml), macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (16 ± 3.8 v 0.3 ± 0.2 pg/ml), and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (35 ± 13 v 0.5 ± 0.4 pg/ml). There was no case of a cytokine exhibiting increased levels in asymptomatic compared with symptomatic knee samples.
This investigation identified 4 specific cytokines (interleukin 6, interferon γ, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1β) out of a panel of 17 inflammatory molecules for which the levels were consistently elevated in the context of ACL injury compared with non-painful, non-acutely injured knees in a volunteer population.
Level IV, prognostic case series.
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ABSTRACT: This work builds on previous research from an EA used to predict secondary structure of RNA molecules. The EA has the goal of predicting which canonical base pairs will form hydrogen bonds and helices. The addition of stacking energies, through INN and INN-HB, to our thermodynamic model has enhanced our predictions. We test three RNA sequences of lengths 118, 543, and 784 nucleotides using a variety of previously successful operators and parameter settings. The accuracy of the predicted structures are compared against those generated by the Nussinov DPA and also to known structures. The EA showed high accuracy of prediction especially on short sequences. On all tested sequences, the EA outperforms the Nussinov DPA.Computational Intelligence in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, 2004. CIBCB '04. Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE Symposium on; 11/2004
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ABSTRACT: Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament is common and may necessitate surgical reconstruction. Surgical reconstruction aims to restore normal kinematics and biology within the knee. The acute phase response after surgical reconstruction remains poorly defined but may influence graft integration through modulation of host tissue remodelling. The very early host production of key cytokines after surgery was studied. A consecutive series of 14 patients undergoing reconstructive surgery were studied per-operatively, 1 and 6 h after surgery, examining the hypothesis that the acute phase response would be non-specific but consistent between individuals, demonstrating increases of pro-inflammatory cytokines. A consistent increased release of monocyte-driven, non-specific, IL-1 and IL-6 release but not T cell-derived IL-2 was found. Perhaps, more interestingly, very early high concentrations of secondary growth factors PDGF and TGF-β suggestive of an anabolic response were found. These data support the contention that an anabolic response starts earlier than previously thought within the surgically reconstructed knee.Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 03/2011; 19(10):1709-15. DOI:10.1007/s00167-011-1486-0 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: More than one in 4 Americans has a musculoskeletal (MSK) disorder that requires medical diagnosis and treatment. Imaging tools are able to demonstrate structural changes but cannot reflect the disease activity or symptom severity of MSK conditions. This is of paramount concern in the aging population, in which imaging findings have poor correlation with symptoms, and multiple pain generators frequently coexist. Because levels of inflammatory and matrix breakdown products address disease activity, evaluation of biomarkers has the potential to provide assessment of active pain generators above and beyond the changes observable on imaging studies. This fact has stimulated research interest in the search for novel biomarkers of disease activity and response to treatment in body fluids. The goal is to develop panels of multi-biomarkers, which could be used independently or in conjunction with the imaging tools, for the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment validation in MSK diseases. The current review of MSK biomarkers is organized into 3 mechanistic categories: the metabolites of extracellular matrix of MSK tissues; inflammatory cytokines and chemokines; and pain-related neuropeptides and/or chemicals. Although some representative biomarkers could be used alone, the fact that MSK diseases are multi-tissue disorders that involve the muscles, bones, cartilage, and nerves suggests that panels of biomarkers may have greater potential than any single biomarker used in isolation. As advances in biotechnology make this a reality, multi-biomarker panels that include all 3 categories of biomarkers, used either alone or in combination with imaging tools, has the potential to revolutionize the clinical approach to MSK diseases.PM&R 06/2011; 3(6 Suppl 1):S39-44. DOI:10.1016/j.pmrj.2011.04.023 · 1.66 Impact Factor