Clinical experience of varenicline for smoking cessation.
ABSTRACT Varenicline, a partial agonist/antagonist of the alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, is effective in smoking cessation, which was demonstrated by several randomized, controlled clinical trials.
In the present study, we evaluated the practical efficacy of varenicline for smoking cessation in patients who visited a pulmonary clinic at a university-affiliated hospital in South Korea.
Varenicline was prescribed to smokers after brief, standardized, individual counseling from June 2007 to January 2009. Their medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Their smoking status was assessed by telephone interview from October 2007, and final, confirmative telephone inquiry was performed in April 2009. The primary question was 4-week continuous abstinence from smoking between 9 and 12 weeks. Results: Overall, 217 current smokers (200 men and 17 women) who were prescribed varenicline were enrolled. On average, participants were 52 years old and had 35 pack-year of smoking history. Nineteen participants (8.8%) did not purchase the drug, and nine (4.1%) who purchased did not take the medicine. Contact was impossible for 32 (14.7%). Fifty participants (23.0%) succeeded, while 107 (49.3%) failed in abstaining from smoking from 9 to 12 weeks. Only 32 (14.7%) had a prescription of varenicline for 12 weeks or more. Most participants (80%) reported their desire for smoking reduced after taking varenicline. Common adverse events were gastrointestinal symptoms and neuropsychiatric symptoms.
Although varenicline was effective in reducing the desire to smoke, poor dosing compliance needs to be overcome in clinical practice.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cognitive enhancers (nootropics) are drugs to treat cognition deficits in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or aging. Cognition refers to a capacity for information processing, applying knowledge, and changing preferences. It involves memory, attention, executive functions, perception, language, and psychomotor functions. The term nootropics was coined in 1972 when memory enhancing properties of piracetam were observed in clinical trials. In the meantime, hundreds of drugs have been evaluated in clinical trials or in preclinical experiments. To classify the compounds, a concept is proposed assigning drugs to 19 categories according to their mechanism(s) of action, in particular drugs interacting with receptors, enzymes, ion channels, nerve growth factors, re-uptake transporters, antioxidants, metal chelators, and disease modifying drugs meaning small molecules, vaccines, and monoclonal antibodies interacting with amyloid-β and tau. For drugs whose mechanism of action is not known, they are either classified according to structure, e.g., peptides, or their origin, e.g., natural products. This review covers the evolution of research in this field over the last 25 years.Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 10/2012; · 3.74 Impact Factor
Dataset: Froestl 2012 Part1
Dataset: Froestl 2012 Part1