Macrophages and tissue injury: agents of defense or destruction?
ABSTRACT The past several years have seen the accumulation of evidence demonstrating that tissue injury induced by diverse toxicants is due not only to their direct effects on target tissues but also indirectly to the actions of resident and infiltrating macrophages. These cells release an array of mediators with cytotoxic, pro- and anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, fibrogenic, and mitogenic activity, which function to fight infections, limit tissue injury, and promote wound healing. However, following exposure to toxicants, macrophages can become hyperresponsive, resulting in uncontrolled or dysregulated release of mediators that exacerbate acute tissue injury and/or promote the development of chronic diseases such as fibrosis and cancer. Evidence suggests that the diverse activity of macrophages is mediated by distinct subpopulations that develop in response to signals within their microenvironment. Understanding the precise roles of these different macrophage populations in the pathogenic response to toxicants is key to designing effective treatments for minimizing tissue damage and chronic disease and for facilitating wound repair.
SourceAvailable from: Alexander Rosendahl[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Monocytes originate from progenitor cells in the bone marrow and traffic via the bloodstream to peripheral tissues. During both homeostasis and in responses to clear pathogens, circulating monocytes leave the bloodstream and migrate into tissues where they, following exposure to local growth factors, pro-inflammatory cytokines and microbial products, differentiate into macrophage or dendritic cell sub-populations. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a disease characterised by the elimination of the insulin producing β-cells in the pancreatic tissue through activation mainly of the adaptive immune system. In metabolic diseases, i.e. obesity, Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and diabetic complications, inflammation is mostly driven by macrophages and has been shown pivotal for disease progression even when blood glucose levels are well controlled. This review describes some current ideas and trends regarding the monocyte and macrophage involvement and their polarization in metabolic diseases that might open up novel therapeutic areas for the growing diabetic population.
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ABSTRACT: Hepatic steatosis is the accumulation of excess fat in the liver. Recently, hepatic steatosis has become more important because it occurs in the patients with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hyperlipidemia and is associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and insulin resistance. C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) inhibitor has been reported to improve inflammation and glucose intolerance in diabetes, but its mechanisms remained unknown in hepatic steatosis. We examined whether CCR2 inhibitor improves ER stress-induced hepatic steatosis in type 2 diabetic mice. In this study, db/db and db/m (n = 9) mice were fed CCR2 inhibitor (2 mg/kg/day) for 9 weeks. In diabetic mice, CCR2 inhibitor decreased plasma and hepatic triglycerides levels and improved insulin sensitivity. Moreover, CCR2 inhibitor treatment decreased ER stress markers (e.g., BiP, ATF4, CHOP, and XBP-1) and inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNFα, IL-6, and MCP-1) while increasing markers of mitochondrial biogenesis (e.g., PGC-1α, Tfam, and COX1) in the liver. We suggest that CCR2 inhibitor may ameliorate hepatic steatosis by reducing ER stress and inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus.PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(3):e0120711. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120711
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ABSTRACT: Inflammation has been implicated as a perpetrator of diabetes and its associated complications. Monocytes, key mediators of inflammation, differentiate into pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages and anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages upon infiltration of damaged tissue. However, the inflammatory cell types, which propagate diabetes progression and consequential adverse disorders, remain unclear. The current study was undertaken to assess monocyte infiltration and the role of fibroblast growth factor-9 (FGF-9) on monocyte to macrophage differentiation and cardioprotection in the diabetic infarcted heart. Db/db diabetic mice were assigned to sham, myocardial infarction (MI), and MI+FGF-9 groups. MI was induced by permanent coronary artery ligation and animals were subjected to 2D transthoracic echocardiography two weeks post-surgery. Immunohistochemical and immunoassay results from heart samples collected suggest significantly increased infiltration of monocytes (Mean ± SEM; MI: 2.02% ± 0.23% vs. Sham 0.75% ± 0.07%; p<0.05) and associated pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-6), adverse cardiac remodeling (Mean ± SEM; MI: 33% ± 3.04% vs. Sham 2.2% ± 0.33%; p<0.05), and left ventricular dysfunction (Mean ± SEM; MI: 35.4% ± 1.25% vs. Sham 49.19% ± 1.07%; p<0.05) in the MI group. Importantly, treatment of diabetic infarcted myocardium with FGF-9 resulted in significantly decreased monocyte infiltration (Mean ± SEM; MI+FGF-9: 1.39% ± 0.1% vs. MI: 2.02% ± 0.23%; p<0.05), increased M2 macrophage differentiation (Mean ± SEM; MI+FGF-9: 4.82% ± 0.86% vs. MI: 0.85% ± 0.3%; p<0.05) and associated anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-1RA), reduced adverse remodeling (Mean ± SEM; MI+FGF-9: 11.59% ± 1.2% vs. MI: 33% ± 3.04%; p<0.05), and improved cardiac function (Fractional shortening, Mean ± SEM; MI+FGF-9: 41.51% ± 1.68% vs. MI: 35.4% ± 1.25%; p<0.05). In conclusion, our data suggest FGF-9 possesses novel therapeutic potential in its ability to mediate monocyte to M2 differentiation and confer cardiac protection in the post-MI diabetic heart.PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0120739. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120739