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    ABSTRACT: Resumo Na maioria dos mamíferos a atividade da enzima lactase diminui na parede intestinal após o desmame, caracterizando a hipolactasia primária que provoca sintomas de intolerância à lactose. A intensidade dos sintomas de distensão, flatulência, dor abdominal e diarreia variam, dependendo da quantidade de lactose ingerida, e aumentam com o passar da idade. A hipolactasia é determinada geneticamente, porém uma mutação ocorreu para que fizesse parte da humanidade tolerar o leite na idade adulta. O diagnóstico é feito por teste de tolerância, empregando a lactose como desafio. Com a descoberta dos finlandeses do polimorfismo associado com a persistência da lactase, principalmente no norte da Europa, o exame genético passou a ser outra ferramenta diagnóstica mais confortável para o intolerante. No Brasil, 43% dos brancos e dos mulatos têm alelo de persistência da lactase, sendo a hipolactasia mais frequente entre os negros e japoneses. Entretanto, na prática clínica indivíduos com hipolactasia podem ser orientados a consumir alguns derivados do leite e alimentos contendo lactose sem apre-sentar sintomas de intolerância, enquanto que outros terão que fazer restrição de lactose na dieta. UniterMos: Intolerância à lactose. Fatores de lactose. Epidemiologia. Biologia molecular.
    Revista Paulista De Pediatria. 01/2010; 56(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary fibres are believed to reduce subjective appetite, energy intake and body weight. However, different types of dietary fibre may affect these outcomes differently. The aim of this review was to systematically investigate the available literature on the relationship between dietary fibre types, appetite, acute and long-term energy intake, and body weight. Fibres were grouped according to chemical structure and physicochemical properties (viscosity, solubility and fermentability). Effect rates were calculated as the proportion of all fibre-control comparisons that reduced appetite (n = 58 comparisons), acute energy intake (n = 26), long-term energy intake (n = 38) or body weight (n = 66). For appetite, acute energy intake, long-term energy intake and body weight, there were clear differences in effect rates depending on chemical structure. Interestingly, fibres characterized as being more viscous (e.g. pectins, β-glucans and guar gum) reduced appetite more often than those less viscous fibres (59% vs. 14%), which also applied to acute energy intake (69% vs. 30%). Overall, effects on energy intake and body weight were relatively small, and distinct dose-response relationships were not observed. Short- and long-term effects of dietary fibres appear to differ and multiple mechanisms relating to their different physicochemical properties seem to interplay. This warrants further exploration.
    Obesity Reviews 06/2011; 12(9):724-39. · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Women's diets are of interest as they not only impact on wellbeing and risk of chronic disease in women themselves, but also influence pregnancy outcomes and infant health. UK dietary surveys show that, while some improvements have occurred, intakes of key micronutrients, particularly iron, vitamin D, calcium and folate remain below recommended levels. Women's diets are also too high in saturated fat and salt, and low in fibre, oily fish and fruits and vegetables. Evidence suggests that certain chronic conditions are influenced by dietary components, e.g. inadequate calcium and vitamin D intakes reduce bone density, salt and saturated fat increase cardiovascular disease risk, excessive alcohol intakes increase cancer risk, low intakes of long chain n-3 fatty acids may adversely affect fetal development and mental health, while adequate folic acid reduces the risk of birth defects. Focused health initiatives are needed to improve diet quality in women, particularly school-aged girls, women planning a pregnancy, those living in areas of deprivation and elderly women. Vitamin and mineral supplements, and fortified foods may have a role to play alongside dietary improvements in helping women to achieve optimal diet quality.
    Nutrition Bulletin 05/2010; 35(2):126 - 137.

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