Redox sensitive calcium stores underlie enhanced after hyperpolarization of aged neurons: role for ryanodine receptor mediated calcium signaling.
ABSTRACT A decrease in the excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons contributes to the age related decrease in hippocampal function and memory decline. Decreased neuronal excitability in aged neurons can be observed as an increase in the Ca(2+)- activated K(+)- mediated post burst afterhyperpolarization (AHP). In this study, we demonstrate that the slow component of AHP (sAHP) in aged CA1 neurons (aged-sAHP) is decreased ∼50% by application of the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT). The DTT-mediated decrease in the sAHP was age specific, such that it was observed in CA1 pyramidal neurons of aged (20-25 mo), but not young (6-9 mo) F344 rats. The effect of DTT on the aged-sAHP was blocked following depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores (ICS) by thapsigargin or blockade of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) by ryanodine, suggesting that the age-related increase in the sAHP was due to release of Ca(2+) from ICS through redox sensitive RyRs. The DTT-mediated decrease in the aged-sAHP was not blocked by inhibition of L-type voltage gated Ca(2+) channels (L-type VGCC), inhibition of Ser/Thr kinases, or inhibition of the large conductance BK potassium channels. The results add support to the idea that a shift in the intracellular redox state contributes to Ca(2+) dysregulation during aging.
Article: Glutathione restores the mechanism of synaptic plasticity in aged mice to that of the adult.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Glutathione (GSH), the major endogenous antioxidant produced by cells, can modulate the activity of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) through its reducing functions. During aging, an increase in oxidative stress leads to decreased levels of GSH in the brain. Concurrently, aging is characterized by calcium dysregulation, thought to underlie impairments in hippocampal NMDAR-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP), a form of synaptic plasticity thought to represent a cellular model for memory. Here we show that orally supplementing aged mice with N-acetylcysteine, a precursor for the formation of glutathione, reverses the L-type calcium channel-dependent LTP seen in aged animals to NMDAR-dependent LTP. In addition, introducing glutathione in the intrapipette solution during whole-cell recordings restores LTP obtained in whole-cell conditions in the aged hippocampus. We conclude that aging leads to a reduced redox potential in hippocampal neurons, triggering impairments in LTP.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(5):e20676. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Influence of viral vector-mediated delivery of superoxide dismutase and catalase to the hippocampus on spatial learning and memory during aging.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Studies employing transgenic mice indicate that overexpression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) improves memory during aging. It is unclear whether the improvement is due to a lifetime of overexpression, decreasing the accumulation of oxidized molecules, or if increasing antioxidant enzymes in older animals could reduce oxidative damage and improve cognitive function. We used adeno-associated virus to deliver antioxidant enzymes (SOD1, SOD2, catalase [CAT], and SOD1+CAT) to the hippocampus of young (4 months) and aged (19 months) F344/BN F1 male rats and examined memory-related behavioral performance 1 month and 4 months postinjection. Overexpression of antioxidant enzymes reduced oxidative damage; however, memory function was not related to the level of oxidative damage. Increased expression of SOD1, initiated in advanced age, impaired learning. Increased expression of SOD1+CAT provided protection from impairments associated with overexpression of SOD1 alone and appears to guard against cognitive impairments in advanced age. Viral vector gene delivery provides a novel approach to test the hypothesis that increased expression of antioxidant enzymes, specifically in hippocampal neurons, will provide protection from age-related cognitive decline. Further, expression of multiple vectors permits more detailed investigation of mechanistic pathways. Oxidative stress is a likely component of aging; however, it is unclear whether increased production of reactive oxygen species or the accumulation of oxidative damage is the primary cause of functional decline. The results provide support for the idea that altered redox-sensitive signaling rather than the accumulation of damage may be of greater significance in the emergence of age-related learning and memory deficits.Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 09/2011; 16(4):339-50. · 8.20 Impact Factor