Modulatory effect of hesperidin on benzo(a)pyrene induced experimental lung carcinogenesis with reference to COX-2, MMP-2 and MMP-9.
ABSTRACT Hesperidin is a naturally occurring flavonoid that has been reported to possess anticancer effects. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of hesperidin in modulating the expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), mast cells (MCs) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) during benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) induced lung carcinogenesis in mice. B(a)P (50 mg/kg body weight) induced animals showed increased mast cell density (MCD) as revealed by toluidine blue staining and severe expression of COX-2 along with upregulated expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 as revealed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Supplementation of hesperidin (25 mg/kg body weight) to lung cancer bearing mice attenuated MCD and downregulated the expressions of COX-2, MMP-2 and MMP-9. These observations show that hesperidin exerts its anti-carcinogenic activity against lung cancer by altering the expressions of COX-2, MMP-2 and MMP-9.
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ABSTRACT: Propolis, the resinous product collected by honey bees from plants, is used as folk medicine since ancient time. Recently, immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of propolis have been published. The detailed mechanisms of actions of propolis and its components on immune cells, however, are still unknown. Therefore, we studied the effects of different propolis extracts, of the flavonoids hesperidin and quercetin as well as of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on basic human immune cell functions. In detail, we measured the effects on DNA synthesis and production of different types of cytokines, namely IL-1beta, IL-12, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-beta1, of mitogen-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as well as of purified T lymphocytes. Our data clearly show that propolis as well as its constituents studied are capable of dose-dependently suppressing phythemagglutinin (PHA)-induced DNA synthesis of PBMC and T cells. Moreover, cytokines produced by monocytes/macrophages (IL-1beta, IL-12), by Th1 type (IL-2) as well as Th2 type (IL-4) lymphocytes were found to be also suppressed, whereas the production of TGF-beta1 by T regulatory cells was ascertained to be increased. These data convincingly demonstrate that propolis has a direct regulatory effect on basic functional properties of immune cells which may be mediated by the Erk2 MAP-kinase signal pathway. Thus, the bee product propolis can be considered as a powerful natural anti-inflammatory medicine influencing different types of immune-responses probably via immunoregulatory T cells.Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung C 58(7-8):580-9. · 0.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoking has been established as a major risk factor for atherosclerosis and also for lung cancer. Nicotine is an active substance present in tobacco. We have analyzed the effect of hesperidin, a bioflavonoid on nicotine induced toxicity. Antioxidant status and expression of MMPs (Matrix metalloproteinases) were analyzed to monitor the protective effect of hesperidin against nicotine toxicity. Our result demonstrated that nicotine significantly up regulates the expression of MMPs and depletes the antioxidant status. On treatment with hesperidin we found the down regulation of expression of MMPs and enhancement in antioxidant status. Hence it could be developed as a drug against tobacco related disease in near future.Toxicology 10/2007; 238(2-3):90-8. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family have been implicated in the metastasis of tumor cells, but no direct evidence linking any given member of the MMP family to metastatic behavior has been presented. Rat embryo cells transformed by the Ha-ras and v-myc oncogenes or by Ha-ras alone are metastatic in nude mice and release the 92-kDa gelatinase/collagenase (MMP-9), whereas those transformed by Ha-ras plus the adenovirus E1A gene are not metastatic and do not release MMP-9. Here we demonstrate that MMP-9 expression can be induced in these tumorigenic but nonmetastatic rat cells by transfection with an MMP-9 expression vector. Transfection of a MMP-9 expression vector, but not control DNAs, conferred metastatic capacity on the nonmetastatic cells. The majority of colonies isolated after continued passage either in vivo or in vitro had lost the MMP-9 expression vector. However, occasional cells were isolated from metastases which retained MMP-9 expression after passage. These cells retained metastatic capacity. In contrast, cells isolated after losing MMP-9 expression also lost the ability to metastasize. These results provide direct evidence that MMP-9 has a role in tumor metastasis.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/1994; 91(10):4293-7. · 9.74 Impact Factor