Effects of bone morphogenetic proteins on osteoblast cells: vascular endothelial growth factor, calcium, inorganic phosphate, and nitric oxide levels.
ABSTRACT Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play an important role in the initiation of bone formation by affecting cell growth and differentiation in a variety of cell types including osteoblasts. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important regulator of angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, and also, VEGF signaling is important for skeletal development. Nitric oxide (NO), calcium (Ca), and inorganic Phosphate (Pi) are important molecules for cell functions. In this study, the effects of BMP on VEGF, Ca, NO, and Pi levels were investigated in an osteoblast cell culture.
Fifty thousand cells per milliliter were seeded and cultured on graft materials for 24 and 48 hours. Different concentrations of BMPs (combination of BMPs numbered from 1 to 14) were supplemented to the medium.
BMP was found to increase VEGF (P = 0.00), Ca (P = 0.02), and Pi (P = 0.00) especially in the first 24 hours. The increase in the NO in the experimental groups were found to be statistically insignificant (P = 0.12).
Our data state that further investigation should be performed on the effects of BMPs on osteoblast cell membranes and membrane receptors and cell signaling, together with their known effects on early phases of bone and vascular epithelial tissue formation.