Minocycline protects cardiac myocytes against simulated ischemia–reperfusion injury by inhibiting poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1.
ABSTRACT There is an increase in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in cardiomyocytes during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. This leads to oxidative DNA damage and activation of nuclear repair enzymes such as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). PARP-1 activation promotes DNA repair under normal conditions. However, excessive activation of PARP-1 leads to cell death. We report that PARP-1 enzymatic activity is directly inhibited by minocycline, and we propose that one mechanism of minocycline cardioprotection is the result of PARP-1 inhibition. Using cultured adult rat cardiac myocytes, we evaluated the mechanism of minocycline protection in which PARP-1 activation was induced by simulated ischemia/reperfusion injury using oxygen–glucose deprivation.We found an increase in reactive oxygen species production, PARP-1 activation, and PARP-1-mediated cell death after simulated ischemia/reperfusion. Cell death was significantly reduced by the PARP inhibitors 3, 4-dihydro-5-[4-(1-piperidinyl)butoxy]-1(2H)-isoquinolinone (10 μM) and PJ-34 (500 nM) or by minocycline (500 nM). Cellular NAD(+) depletion and poly(ADP-ribose) formation, which are biochemical markers of PARP-1 activation, were also blocked by minocycline. Finally, simulated ischemia/reperfusion led to induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition, which was prevented by minocycline. Therefore, we propose that the protective effect of minocycline on cardiac myocyte survival is the result of inhibition of PARP-1 activity.
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ABSTRACT: These studies were designed to determine whether minocycline inhibits ovarian cancer growth in vitro and in vivo and the molecular mechanisms involved. The effect of minocycline on ovarian cancer cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis was assessed using human ovarian cancer cell lines OVCAR-3, SKOV-3 and A2780. Then, the capacity of minocycline to inhibit growth of OVCAR-3 xenografts in female nude mice was examined. Minocycline inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation, down-regulated cyclins A, B and E leading to arrest of cells in the G(0) phase of the cycle and suppression of DNA synthesis. Furthermore, exposure of these cells to minocycline led to DNA laddering, activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP-1. In nude mice bearing sub-cutaneous tumors, minocycline suppressed tumor proliferation index, angiogenesis and tumor growth. These findings provide the initial basis for further evaluation of minocycline in the treatment of ovarian cancer.Gynecologic Oncology 01/2012; 125(2):433-40. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sirtuins (Sirt), a family of nicotinamide adenine nucleotide (NAD) dependent deacetylases, are implicated in energy metabolism and life span. Among the known Sirt isoforms (Sirt1-7), Sirt3 was identified as a stress responsive deacetylase recently shown to play a role in protecting cells under stress conditions. Here, we demonstrated the presence of Sirt3 in neurons, and characterized the role of Sirt3 in neuron survival under NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. To induce excitotoxic injury, we exposed primary cultured mouse cortical neurons to NMDA (30 µM). NMDA induced a rapid decrease of cytoplasmic NAD (but not mitochondrial NAD) in neurons through poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) activation. Mitochondrial Sirt3 was increased following PARP-1 mediated NAD depletion, which was reversed by either inhibition of PARP-1 or exogenous NAD. We found that massive reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced under this NAD depleted condition mediated the increase in mitochondrial Sirt3. By transfecting primary neurons with a Sirt3 overexpressing plasmid or Sirt3 siRNA, we showed that Sirt3 is required for neuroprotection against excitotoxicity. This study demonstrated for the first time that mitochondrial Sirt3 acts as a prosurvival factor playing an essential role to protect neurons under excitotoxic injury.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(3):e14731. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: The role of minocycline in ischemia-reperfusion injury: a comprehensive review of an old drug with new implications.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Minocycline is a semi-synthetic tetracycline that inhibits bacterial protein synthesis and hence is used for the treatment of many infectious diseases. Over the years, many other interesting properties of minocycline have been identified and been used to make patents which include anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor and free oxygen radical scavenger activity. Ischemia-reperfusion injury is a concern for almost every clinical specialty and minocycline seems to be an attractive cytoprotective agent that can ameliorate the damage due to these properties. Ischemia-reperfusion injury is a complex process and involves various pathways that lead to cell death. This review focuses on the body of evidence describing various proposed mechanisms of action of minocycline and its current experimental use in various animal models of ischemia-reperfusion injury.Recent patents on cardiovascular drug discovery. 05/2011; 6(2):123-32.