Incidence and costs of cardiometabolic conditions in patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotic medications.
ABSTRACT To examine the incidence of cardiometabolic conditions and change in care costs for patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotic medications, medical and pharmacy claims from the South Carolina Medicaid program were used to compare the incidence rates for five cardiometabolic conditions in 2,231 patients with schizophrenia who were newly prescribed one of seven antipsychotic medications, using a retrospective cohort design spanning three years. Incidence and cumulative prevalence (pre-existing + incident) rates for the five cardiometabolic conditions were: 10%/23.3% for Type II diabetes mellitus, 7%/13.3% for obesity/excessive weight gain, 17%/20.9% for dyslipidemia, 4.5%/7.3% for high blood pressure, and 15.6%/41.8% for hypertension. After being treated with the antipsychotic medications examined, the odds of developing obesity/excessive weight gain, Type II diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemia were not significantly related to any specific atypical agent compared to haloperidol. Incidence rates for elevated blood pressure and clinically diagnosed hypertension were higher for patients prescribed ziprasidone (Odds Ratio [OR]=2.41, Confidence Intervals [CI]=1.20-4.85; OR=1.83, CI=1.16-2.90, respectively) relative to those prescribed haloperidol. Cost results indicate significant differences over time in medical service and pharmacy costs in the group which developed incident cardiometabolic conditions. Individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia with moderate prevalence and incidence rates for these cardiometabolic conditions demonstrated substantially decreasing medical care costs over the three years examined, perhaps indicating a widening gap in access to needed services for conditions that are known mortality risk factors.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Jeanette M Jerrell, Feb 17, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is often referred to as one of the most severe mental disorders, primarily because of the very high mortality rates of those with the disorder. This article reviews the literature on excess early mortality in persons with schizophrenia and suggests reasons for the high mortality as well as possible ways to reduce it. Persons with schizophrenia have an exceptionally short life expectancy. High mortality is found in all age groups, resulting in a life expectancy of approximately 20 years below that of the general population. Evidence suggests that persons with schizophrenia may not have seen the same improvement in life expectancy as the general population during the past decades. Thus, the mortality gap not only persists but may actually have increased. The most urgent research agenda concerns primary candidates for modifiable risk factors contributing to this excess mortality, i.e., side effects of treatment and lifestyle factors, as well as sufficient prevention and treatment of physical comorbidity. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology Volume 10 is March 20, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 12/2013; DOI:10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032813-153657 · 12.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aims: We aim to identify the prevalence and management strategies of nine clinically important categories of antipsychotic adverse effects, namely: extrapyramidal symptoms; sedation; weight gain; type II diabetes; hyperprolactinaemia; metabolic syndrome, dyslipidaemia; sexual dysfunction; and cardiovascular effects. Background: Antipsychotic drugs are widely prescribed for schizophrenia and other mental disorders. The adverse effects of antipsychotics are common, with a potential negative impact on adherence and engagement. Despite this, the scientific study of the prevalence or management of adverse antipsychotic effects is a neglected area. Method: A systematic review was undertaken using pre-defined search criteria and three databases, with hand searching of citations and references. Inclusion was agreed on by two independent researchers after review of abstracts or full text. Quality analysis of included studies was conducted using pre-agreed criteria. Results: In total, 53 studies met inclusion criteria, revealing the following: (1) antipsychotic polypharmacy was associated with increased frequency of adverse effects, and (2) a longer duration of treatment is associated with greater severity (e.g. higher BMI); (3) clozapine was more strongly associated with metabolic disturbance than other antipsychotics in three studies and olanzapine was associated with the most weight gain in three studies; (4) hyperprolactinaemia was more common in women than men, but 50% men noted sexual dysfunction versus 25–50% in women; (5) despite clinical guideline recommendations there is a low rate of baseline testing for lipids and glucose; and (6) seven studies described adverse effect management strategies, but only two examined their efficacy – one found a significant reduction in weight with non-pharmacological group therapy and the other found a significant reduction in dyslipidaemia with statins. Conclusions: Antipsychotic adverse effects are diverse and frequently experienced, but are not often systematically assessed. There is a need for further scientific study concerning the management of these side effects.Journal of Psychopharmacology 12/2014; 1(4). DOI:10.1177/0269881114562090 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Individuals with intellectual disability frequently use antipsychotics for many years. This may have detrimental health effects, including neurological symptoms and metabolic and hormonal dysregulation, the latter possibly affecting bone metabolism. There is large variability in the degree in which antipsychotic agents lead to these health problems. In the current study we investigated potential determinants of physical symptoms and biological parameters known to be associated with use of antipsychotics in a convenience sample of 99 individuals with intellectual disability who had used antipsychotics for more than one year for behavioural symptoms. We focused on extrapyramidal symptoms; on overweight and presence of components of the metabolic syndrome; and on elevated plasma prolactin and bone turnover parameters. As predictor variables, we used patient (sex, age, genetic polymorphisms, and severity of intellectual disability) and medication use (type and dosage) characteristics. We found extrapyramidal symptoms to be present in 53%, overweight or obesity in 46%, and the metabolic syndrome in 11% of participants. Hyperprolactineaemia and one or more elevated bone turnover markers were present in 17% and 25%, respectively. Higher age and more severe intellectual disability were associated with dyskinesia and a higher dosage of the antipsychotic drug was associated with parkinsonism. Less severe intellectual disability was related to higher Body Mass Index. Use of atypical antipsychotics was associated with higher diastolic blood pressure and elevated fasting glucose. Clinicians who prescribe antipsychotics in individuals with intellectual disability should carefully balance the potential benefits of prolonged treatment against the risk of health hazards associated with the use of antipsychotics.Research in developmental disabilities 06/2013; 34(9):2799-2809. DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2013.05.016 · 4.41 Impact Factor