Dilute proparacaine for the management of acute corneal injuries in the emergency department.
ABSTRACT Dogma discourages the provision of topical anesthetics to patients with corneal injuries discharged from the emergency department because of the toxicity of concentrated solutions. We compared the analgesic efficacy of dilute topical proparacaine with placebo in emergency department patients with acute corneal injuries.
We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial of adults with corneal injuries presenting to one of 2 tertiary care emergency departments in London, Ont. Patients were randomly assigned to groups receiving either 0.05% proparacaine or placebo drops as outpatients and were followed up to healing by a single ophthalmologist. Our primary outcome was pain reduction as measured on a 10-cm visual analog scale.
Fifteen participants from the proparacaine group and 18 participants from the placebo group completed the study. The mean age of the patients was 38.7 (standard deviation 12.3) years and the majority were male (85%). Pain reduction was significantly better in the proparacaine group than in the placebo group, with a median improvement of 3.9 (interquartile range [IQR] 1.5-5.1) cm on the visual analog scale versus a median improvement of 0.6 (IQR 0.2-2.0) cm (p = 0.007). The proparacaine group was more satisfied (median level of satisfaction 8.0 [IQR 6.0-9.0] cm on a 10-cm visual analog scale v. 2.6 [IQR 1.0-8.0] cm, p = 0.027). There were no ocular complications or signs of delayed wound healing in either group.
Dilute topical proparacaine is an efficacious analgesic for acute corneal injuries. Although no adverse events were observed in our study population, larger studies are required to evaluate safety.
- Disease-a-month : DM. 06/2014; 60(6):247-253.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that topical tetracaine would be safe to use for 24 hours and would not affect corneal healing, that patients would experience more pain relief, and that patients would perceive tetracaine to be more effective than saline eye drops for the treatment of pain caused by corneal abrasions. The study was a 12-month, prospective, double-blind, randomized trial of tetracaine versus saline set in the emergency department (ED) of a regional tertiary care teaching hospital. A total of 116 patients presenting with uncomplicated corneal abrasions were included in this study. The intervention was either undiluted, preservative-free, topical tetracaine hydrochloride 1% or saline, applied up to every 30 minutes while awake for 24 hours. Main safety outcome measures were repeat ED examinations at 48 hours with fluorescein staining and slit-lamp examination, 1-week and 1-month telephone interviews with additional examinations as needed, and monitoring of charts for complications. Secondary outcome measures were 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS) pain scores recorded every 2 hours while awake for 48 hours and patient-perceived overall effectiveness using a numeric rating scale (NRS) of 0 to 10 obtained during telephone interviews. At least one follow-up encounter was completed on each of the 116 patients. No complications specifically attributed to topical anesthetic use occurred in the 59 patients in the tetracaine group, and the binomial probability confidence interval (CI) of this occurring is 0 to 6.1. There was no significant difference in corneal healing as measured by the percentage of patients with persistent fluorescein uptake at 48 hours between the two groups (23.9% vs. 21.3%, difference = 2.6%, 95% CI = -14% to 20%, p = 0.761) or persistent symptoms at 48 hours (21.7% vs. 21.3%, difference = 0.4%, 95% CI = -16% to 17%, p = 0.957). There was no clinical difference in VAS pain scores between the groups. Patients in the tetracaine group rated the study drugs' overall effectiveness significantly higher on the NRS (7.7 vs. 3.9) compared to patients in the saline group (difference = 3.9, 95% CI = 2.4 to 5.3, p < 0.0005). Topical tetracaine used for 24 hours is safe, and while there was no significant difference in patient VAS pain ratings over time, patient surveys on overall effectiveness showed that patients perceived tetracaine to be significantly more effective than saline.Academic Emergency Medicine 04/2014; 21(4):374-382. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Corneal nerves are responsible for the sensations of touch, pain, and temperature and play an important role in the blink reflex, wound healing, and tear production and secretion. Corneal nerve dysfunction is a frequent feature of diseases that cause opacities and result in corneal blindness. Corneal opacities rank as the second most frequent cause of blindness. Technological advances in in vivo corneal nerve imaging, such as optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning, have generated new knowledge regarding the phenomenological events that occur during reinnervation of the cornea following disease, injury, or surgery. The recent availability of transgenic neurofluorescent murine models has stimulated the search for molecular modulators of corneal nerve regeneration. New evidence suggests that neuroregenerative and inflammatory pathways in the cornea are intertwined. Evidence-based treatment of neurotrophic corneal diseases includes using neuroregenerative (blood component-based and neurotrophic factors), neuroprotective, and ensconcing (bandage contact lens and amniotic membrane) strategies and avoiding anti-inflammatory therapies, such as cyclosporine and corticosteroids.Survey of Ophthalmology 01/2014; · 2.86 Impact Factor