Dilute proparacaine for the management of acute corneal injuries in the emergency department
ABSTRACT Dogma discourages the provision of topical anesthetics to patients with corneal injuries discharged from the emergency department because of the toxicity of concentrated solutions. We compared the analgesic efficacy of dilute topical proparacaine with placebo in emergency department patients with acute corneal injuries.
We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial of adults with corneal injuries presenting to one of 2 tertiary care emergency departments in London, Ont. Patients were randomly assigned to groups receiving either 0.05% proparacaine or placebo drops as outpatients and were followed up to healing by a single ophthalmologist. Our primary outcome was pain reduction as measured on a 10-cm visual analog scale.
Fifteen participants from the proparacaine group and 18 participants from the placebo group completed the study. The mean age of the patients was 38.7 (standard deviation 12.3) years and the majority were male (85%). Pain reduction was significantly better in the proparacaine group than in the placebo group, with a median improvement of 3.9 (interquartile range [IQR] 1.5-5.1) cm on the visual analog scale versus a median improvement of 0.6 (IQR 0.2-2.0) cm (p = 0.007). The proparacaine group was more satisfied (median level of satisfaction 8.0 [IQR 6.0-9.0] cm on a 10-cm visual analog scale v. 2.6 [IQR 1.0-8.0] cm, p = 0.027). There were no ocular complications or signs of delayed wound healing in either group.
Dilute topical proparacaine is an efficacious analgesic for acute corneal injuries. Although no adverse events were observed in our study population, larger studies are required to evaluate safety.
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ABSTRACT: Oral analgesics are commonly prescribed for the treatment of acute and chronic pain, but these agents often produce adverse systemic effects, which sometimes are severe. Topical analgesics offer the potential to provide the same analgesic relief provided by oral analgesics but with minimal adverse systemic effects. This article describes the results of a systematic review of the efficacy of topical analgesics in the management of acute and chronic pain conditions. A literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed was conducted using the keywords topical analgesic AND chronic pain OR acute pain OR neuropathic pain and focused only on individual clinical trials published in English-language journals. The search identified 92 articles, of which 65 were eligible for inclusion in the review. The most commonly studied topical analgesics were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (n=27), followed by lidocaine (n=9), capsaicin (n=6), amitriptyline (n=5), glyceryl trinitrate (n=3), opioids (n=2), menthol (n=2), pimecrolimus (n=2), and phenytoin (n=2). The most common indications were acute soft tissue injuries (n=18), followed by neuropathic pain (n=17), experimental pain (n=6), osteoarthritis and other chronic joint-related conditions (n=5), skin or leg ulcers (n=5), and chronic knee pain (n=2). Strong evidence was identified for the use of topical diclofenac and topical ibuprofen in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries or chronic joint-related conditions, such as osteoarthritis. Evidence also supports the use of topical lidocaine in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia and diabetic neuropathy. Currently, limited evidence is available to support the use of other topical analgesics in acute and chronic pain.Mayo Clinic Proceedings 02/2013; 88(2):195-205. DOI:10.1016/j.mayocp.2012.11.015 · 5.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: Welding workers' ophthalmic problems resulting from their professions are frequently observed in ophthalmic emergencies and can cause severe visual impairment. We aimed to investigate the use of topical anesthetic and non-medical alternatives of this population regarding ophthalmic problems in this study. Materials and methods: The study included 204 welding workers randomly selected from a population of 1852 people who had at least one-year experience as a welding worker and who were members of a chamber of welding workers. Data were collected at face to face interviews with a questionnaire composed of questions about ophthalmic problems caused by their profession and about how they eliminated these problems. Obtained data were analyzed with SPSS. Results: Of 204 workers, 38.7% preferred non-medical alternatives including application of potatoes (22%), dressing with tea (17%), rinsing with cold water (3.4%) and closing eyes (2%). 30.5% of the participants used topical anesthetics (72% commercial and 28% prepared in pharmacies). There was a significant relation between use of non-medical methods and topical anesthetics, and workers' education, duration of work experience and receiving training from their seniors (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Use of non-medical methods and topical anesthetics by welding workers was found to be associated with low-education levels and insufficient knowledge about ophthalmologic problems due their professions and their treatment. They should be provided with appropriate training for the issue and precautions should be taken to prevent people from buying drugs without a prescription.Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology 05/2013; 33(2). DOI:10.3109/15569527.2013.796480 · 0.92 Impact Factor
Article: Cranial Nerves in Health and Disease[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Corneal nerves are responsible for the sensations of touch, pain, and temperature and play an important role in the blink reflex, wound healing, and tear production and secretion. Corneal nerve dysfunction is a frequent feature of diseases that cause opacities and result in corneal blindness. Corneal opacities rank as the second most frequent cause of blindness. Technological advances in in vivo corneal nerve imaging, such as optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning, have generated new knowledge regarding the phenomenological events that occur during reinnervation of the cornea following disease, injury, or surgery. The recent availability of transgenic neurofluorescent murine models has stimulated the search for molecular modulators of corneal nerve regeneration. New evidence suggests that neuroregenerative and inflammatory pathways in the cornea are intertwined. Evidence-based treatment of neurotrophic corneal diseases includes using neuroregenerative (blood component-based and neurotrophic factors), neuroprotective, and ensconcing (bandage contact lens and amniotic membrane) strategies and avoiding anti-inflammatory therapies, such as cyclosporine and corticosteroids.Survey of Ophthalmology 01/2014; 59(3). DOI:10.1016/j.survophthal.2013.09.002 · 3.51 Impact Factor