Differential effects of uridine adenosine tetraphosphate on purinoceptors in the rat isolated perfused kidney.
ABSTRACT Purinergic signalling plays an important role in vascular tone regulation in humans. We have identified uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up(4)A) as a novel and highly potent endothelial-derived contracting factor. Up(4)A induces strong vasoconstrictive effects in the renal vascular system mainly by P2X(1) receptor activation. However, other purinoceptors are also involved and were analysed here.
The rat isolated perfused kidney was used to characterize vasoactive actions of Up(4)A.
After desensitization of the P2X(1) receptor by α,β-methylene ATP (α,β-meATP), Up(4)A showed dose-dependent P2Y(2)-mediated vasoconstriction. Continuous perfusion with Up(4)A evoked a biphasic vasoconstrictor effect: there was a strong and rapidly desensitizing vasoconstriction, inhibited by P2X(1) receptor desensitization. In addition, there is a long-lasting P2Y(2)-mediated vasoconstriction. This vasoconstriction could be blocked by suramin, but not by PPADS or reactive blue 2. In preparations of the rat isolated perfused kidney model with an elevated vascular tone, bolus application of Up(4)A showed a dose-dependent vasoconstriction that was followed by a dose-dependent vasodilation. The vasoconstriction was in part sensitive to P2X(1) receptor desensitization by α,β-meATP, and the remaining P2Y(2)-mediated vasoconstriction was only inhibited by suramin. The Up(4)A-induced vasodilation depended on activation of nitric oxide synthases, and was mediated by P2Y(1) and P2Y(2) receptor activation.
Up(4)A activated P2X(1) and P2Y(2) receptors to act as a vasoconstrictor, whereas endothelium-dependent vasodilation was induced by P2Y(1/2) receptor activation. Up(4)A might be of relevance in the physiology and pathophysiology of vascular tone regulation.
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ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated that uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up4A) exerts a potent vasodilator effect in the healthy porcine coronary vasculature. Since the coronary microvascular effects of Up4A after myocardial infarction (MI) are unknown, the present study investigated the response to Up4A in coronary microvessels from post-MI remodeled porcine myocardium, and the involvement of purinergic receptor subtypes. Coronary small arteries (diameter ∼150μm) were dissected from the apex of Sham-operated swine and swine in which MI had been produced 5 weeks earlier by transient (2hr) occlusion of the left circumflex coronary artery, and mounted on Mulvany wire myographs. Up4A (10-9-10-5M) produced coronary vasodilation that was reduced in MI as compared to Sham-operated swine. Up4A-induced vasodilation was reduced by P1 blockade with 8-phenyltheophylline in Sham-operated swine and to a lesser extent in MI, while the attenuation by the A2A receptor blocker SCH58261 was similar in Sham-operated and MI swine. Up4A-induced vasodilation remained unaffected by non-selective P2 receptor antagonist PPADS, but was attenuated by selective P2X1 and P2Y1 receptor antagonists MRS2159 and MRS2179, albeit to a similar extent in Sham-operated and MI swine. These responses were paralleled by similar mRNA expression levels of A2A, P2X1 and P2Y1 receptors in MI compared to slaughterhouse control swine; Finally, attenuation of Up4A-induced coronary vasodilation by nitric oxide synthase inhibition was not attenuated in MI as compared to Sham-operated swine. In conclusion, blunted coronary vasodilation in response to Up4A in MI swine is most likely due to reduced activation of P1, rather than P2, receptors and does not involve a loss of NO bioavailability.Pharmacological Research 08/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.phrs.2013.08.007 · 3.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Enteric purinergic motor neurotransmission, acting through P2Y1 receptors (P2Y1R), mediates inhibitory neural control of the intestines. Recent studies have shown that NAD+ and ADP ribose better meet criteria for enteric inhibitory neurotransmitters in colon than ATP or ADP. Here we report that human and murine colon muscles also release uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up4A) spontaneously and upon stimulation of enteric neurons. Release of Up4A was reduced by tetrodotoxin, suggesting that at least a portion of Up4A is of neural origin. Up4A caused relaxation (human and murine colons) and hyperpolarization (murine colon) that was blocked by the P2Y1R antagonist, MRS 2500, and by apamin, an inhibitor of Ca2+-activated small-conductance K+ (SK) channels. Up4A responses were greatly reduced or absent in colons of P2ry1−/− mice. Up4A induced P2Y1R–SK-channel–mediated hyperpolarization in isolated PDGFRα+ cells, which are postjunctional targets for purinergic neurotransmission. Up4A caused MRS 2500-sensitive Ca2+ transients in human 1321N1 astrocytoma cells expressing human P2Y1R. Up4A was more potent than ATP, ADP, NAD+, or ADP ribose in colonic muscles. In murine distal colon Up4A elicited transient P2Y1R-mediated relaxation followed by a suramin-sensitive contraction. HPLC analysis of Up4A degradation suggests that exogenous Up4A first forms UMP and ATP in the human colon and UDP and ADP in the murine colon. Adenosine then is generated by extracellular catabolism of ATP and ADP. However, the relaxation and hyperpolarization responses to Up4A are not mediated by its metabolites. This study shows that Up4A is a potent native agonist for P2Y1R and SK-channel activation in human and mouse colon.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2014; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1409078111 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purinergic signaling plays important roles in control of vascular tone and remodeling. There is dual control of vascular tone by ATP released as a cotransmitter with noradrenaline from perivascular sympathetic nerves to cause vasoconstriction via P2X1 receptors, whereas ATP released from endothelial cells in response to changes in blood flow (producing shear stress) or hypoxia acts on P2X and P2Y receptors on endothelial cells to produce nitric oxide and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor, which dilates vessels. ATP is also released from sensory-motor nerves during antidromic reflex activity to produce relaxation of some blood vessels. In this review, we stress the differences in neural and endothelial factors in purinergic control of different blood vessels. The long-term (trophic) actions of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides and nucleotides in promoting migration and proliferation of both vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells via P1 and P2Y receptors during angiogenesis and vessel remodeling during restenosis after angioplasty are described. The pathophysiology of blood vessels and therapeutic potential of purinergic agents in diseases, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, ischemia, thrombosis and stroke, diabetes, and migraine, is discussed.Pharmacological reviews 01/2014; 66(1):102-192. DOI:10.1124/pr.113.008029 · 18.55 Impact Factor