A Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet spectrum of SN 1993J
ABSTRACT We obtained a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ultraviolet spectrum of the Type II supernova SN 1993J in M81 on 1993 April 15. The approximately 1650-2900 A region is smoother than observed for SN 1987A and SN 1992A and lacks strong P Cygni absorptions caused by iron peak element lines. Synthetic spectra calculated using a parameterized Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) procedure and a simple model atmosphere do not fit the UV region. Radio observations suggest that SN 1993J is embedded in a thick circumstellar envelope. The UV spectra of other supernovae that are believed to have thick circumstellar envelopes also have approximately 1650-2900 A regions lacking in strong P Cygni absorptions. Interaction of supernova ejecta and circumstellar matter may cause the smooth UV spectrum. If so, UV observations of supernovae will provide insight into the circumstellar environment of the supernova progenitors.
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ABSTRACT: We identify an important set of key areas where an advanced observational Ultraviolet capability would have major impact on studies of cosmology and Galaxy formation in the young Universe. Most of these are associated with the Universe at z < 3–4. We address the issues associated with Dark matter evidence in the local Universe and the impact of the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium WHIM on the local Baryon count. The motivations to make ultraviolet (UV) studies of supernovae (SNe) are reviewed and discussed in the light of the results obtained so far by means of IUE and HST observations. It appears that UV studies of SNe can, and do lead to fundamental results not only for our understanding of the SN phenomenon, such as the kinematics and the metallicity of the ejecta, but also for exciting new findings in Cosmology, such as the tantalizing evidence for “dark energy” that seems to pervade the Universe and to dominate its energetics. The need for additional and more detailed UV observations is also considered and discussed. Finally we show the enormous importance of the UV for abundance evolution in the Intergalactic Medium (IGM), and the importance of the He II studies to identify re-ionization epochs, which can only be done in the UV.01/2007: pages 69-84; · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We discuss a simple model for the formation of a supernova spectral line by resonance scattering in the presence of external illumination of the line-forming region by light from circumstellar interaction (toplighting). The simple model provides a clear understanding of the most conspicuous toplighting effect: a rescaling or, as we prefer, a ``muting'' of the line profile relative to the continuum. This effect would be present in more realistic models, but would be harder to isolate. An analytic expression for a muting factor for a P-Cygni line is derived that depends on the ratio E of the toplighting specific intensity to the specific intensity from the supernova photosphere. If E<1, the line profile is reduced in scale or ``muted''. If E=1, the line profile vanishes altogether. If E>1, the line profile flips vertically: then having an absorption component near the observer-frame line center wavelength and a blueshifted emission component. Comment: accepted for publication in PASP11/1999;