Article

Role of chemokines and their receptors in cancer

Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, P.O. Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.
Current Pharmaceutical Design (Impact Factor: 3.29). 09/2009;
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT Metastases are the cause of 90% of human cancer deaths. The current treatment of cancer with chemo,- and/or radiotherapy is based on cell death by DNA damage neglecting the fact that cancer cell invasion into surrounding tissues and metastasizing are fundamental features of neoplasms and the major reason for treatment failure. Metastasis is the result of several sequential steps and represents a highly organized, non-random, and organ-selective process. A number of in vitro and in vivo models show that tumor cells use chemokine-mediated mechanisms during this metastasizing process, comparable to those observed in the regulation of leukocyte trafficking. Furthermore, chemokines modulate tumor behavior such as the regulation of tumor-associated angiogenesis, activation of host tumor-specific immunological responses, and direct stimulation of tumor cell proliferation in an autocrine fashion. These findings may lead to new drugs that target chemokines or their receptors and will likely be of great additional value for treatment of cancer patients.

0 Followers
 · 
79 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: In certain cancers, expression of CXCL16 and its receptor CXCR6 associate with lymphocyte infiltration, possibly aiding anti-tumour immune response. In other cancers, CXCL16 and CXCR6 associate with pro-metastatic activity. In the current study, we aimed to characterise the role of CXCL16, sCXCL16, and CXCR6 in ovarian cancer (OC). Methods: CXCL16/CXCR6 expression was analysed on tissue microarray containing 306 OC patient samples. Pre-treatment serum sCXCL16 was determined in 118 patients using ELISA. In vitro, (primary) OC cells were treated with an ADAM-10/ADAM-17 inhibitor (TAPI-2) and an ADAM-10-specific inhibitor (GI254023x), whereupon CXCL16 levels were evaluated on the cell membrane (immunofluorescent analysis, western blots) and in culture supernatants (ELISA). In addition, cell migration was assessed using scratch assays. Results: sCXCL16 independently predicted for poor survival (hazard ratio=2.28, 95% confidence interval=1.29–4.02, P=0.005), whereas neither CXCL16 nor CXCR6 expression correlated with survival. Further, CXCL16/CXCR6 expression and serum sCXCL16 levels did not associate with lymphocyte infiltration. In vitro inhibition of both ADAM-17 and ADAM-10, but especially the latter, decreased CXCL16 membrane shedding and strongly reduced cell migration of A2780 and cultured primary OC-derived malignant cells. Conclusions: High serum sCXCL16 is a prognostic marker for poor survival of OC patients, possibly reflecting ADAM-10 and ADAM-17 pro-metastatic activity. Therefore, serum sCXCL16 levels may be a pseudomarker that identifies patients with highly metastatic tumours.
    British Journal of Cancer 02/2014; 110(6). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2014.55 · 4.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Environmental exposure to arsenic is known to cause various cancers. There are some potential relationships between cell malignant transformation and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) expressions. Metastasis, one of the major characteristics of malignantly transformed cells, contributes to the high mortality of cells. CXCR4 and its natural chemokine ligand C-X-C motif ligand 12 (CXCL12) play a critical role in metastasis. Therefore, identification of nutritional factors which are able to inhibit CXCR4 is important for protection from environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis and for abolishing metastasis of malignantly transformed cells. The present study demonstrates that apigenin (4', 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone), a natural dietary flavonoid, suppressed CXCR4 expression in arsenic-transformed Beas-2B cells (B-AsT) and several other type of transformed/cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Neither proteasome nor lysosome inhibitor had any effect in reducing the apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4, indicating that apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4 is not due to proteolytic degradation. The down-regulation of CXCR4 is mainly due to the inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcriptional activity. Apigenin also abolished migration and invasion of transformed cells induced by CXCL12. In a xenograft mouse model, apigenin down-regulated CXCR4 expression and suppressed tumor growth. Taken together, our results show that apigenin is a novel inhibitor of CXCR4 expression. This dietary flavonoid has the potential to suppress migration and invasion of transformed cells and prevent environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 06/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.taap.2013.05.028 · 3.63 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor; it is highly aggressive and is associated with a poor prognosis. Binding of the chemokine CXCL12 to its receptors (CXCR4 and CXCR7) contributes to the activation of many downstream signaling pathways and promotes the invasion of various malignant tumor cells, including GBM cells. FOXM1, a transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation, is overexpressed in GBM and is involved in GBM progression. However, the molecular mechanisms by which CXCL12 promotes the invasion of human GBM cells remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that CXCL12 increases the production of FOXM1 by binding to CXCR4 in GBM cell lines. Furthermore, pretreatment with an inhibitor of the PI3K/AKT pathway abrogated the CXCL12-induced expression of FOXM1. In addition, there was a positive correlation between CXCL12/CXCR4 expression and FOXM1 expression in human malignant glioma tissues. Finally, a functional assay revealed that CXCL12 does not stimulate GBM cell invasion when FOXM1 expressionis silenced using a small interfering RNA (siRNA). Collectively, these findings suggest that CXCL12 promotes GBM cell invasion in part byincreasing the expression of FOXM1, which is mediated in part by a PI3K/AKT-dependent mechanism in vitro.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2014; 447(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.12.079 · 2.28 Impact Factor

Similar Publications