Do differences in childhood diet explain the reduced overweight risk in breastfed children?

Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Obesity (Impact Factor: 4.39). 09/2008; DOI: 10.1038/oby.2008.403
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT Breastfeeding has been associated with a reduced risk of overweight later in life. This study investigates whether differences in diet and lifestyle at 7 years of age between breastfed and formula-fed children can explain the difference in overweight prevalence at 8 years of age. We studied 2,043 Dutch children born in 1996-1997 who participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth cohort study. Data on breastfeeding duration and diet and lifestyle factors at 7 years were collected using questionnaires. Weight and height were measured at 8 years. Overweight was defined according to international gender- and age-specific standards. Compared to nonbreastfed children (15.5%, n = 316), children breastfed for >16 weeks (38.0%, n = 776) consumed fruit and vegetables significantly more often and meat, white bread, carbonated soft drinks, chocolate bars, and fried snacks less often. Overall, breastfed children were less likely to have an unhealthy diet (adjusted prevalence ratio: 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.61-0.98). The associations could only partly be explained by maternal education, maternal overweight, and smoking during pregnancy. At 8 years, 14.5% (n = 297) of the children were overweight. Breastfeeding for >16 weeks was significantly associated with a lower overweight risk at 8 years (adjusted odds ratio: 0.67, 95% confidence interval: 0.47-0.97), and the association hardly changed after adjustment for diet (adjusted odds ratio: 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.49-1.03). Breastfed children had a healthier diet at 7 years compared to nonbreastfed children, but this difference could not explain the lower overweight risk at 8 years in breastfed children.Obesity (2008) 16 11, 2498-2503. doi:10.1038/oby.2008.403.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The highest prevalence rates of childhood obesity have been observed in developed countries, however, its prevalence is increasing in developing countries as well. Objectives To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary school children, aged from 6 to 12 years and to estimate risk factors of obesity and overweight, defined by body mass index (BMI). Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out at Port Said city during the second term of school year 2010/2011. The researcher took the anthropometric measurements inside the nurse’s room in the school and gave a questionnaire to the students to be answered by one of the child’s parents. The questionnaire included questions related to socioeconomic status, life style (physical activity and eating habits) and family history of overweight and obesity. Results Eight hundred and fifty-two students participated in this study. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 17.7% and 13.5% respectively. The rate of obesity was the highest at the age of 7–8 years (grade 2) and decreased with an increase in age, while overweight increased with an increase in age to be the highest at the age of 9–10 (grade 4) and 10–11 (grade 5). Socioeconomic class, faulty dietary habits, sedentary life, low level of physical activity and positive family history of overweight and/or obesity were significantly associated with student’s BMI. Conclusion This study found a relatively high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children aged 6–12 years in Port Said city. Decreased rate of obesity with an increase in age in our study, signifies that faulty feeding habits were the highest at lower ages.
    The Gazette of the Egyptian Paediatric Association 01/2013; 61(1):31–36. DOI:10.1016/j.epag.2013.04.007
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Preventing obesity starts with breastfeeding. An infant's nutrition at birth affects not only short-term health outcomes but also the health of that person as a child, adolescent, and adult. This article examines major findings that all conclude that any breastfeeding will help protect an infant from obesity and overweight. Research supports that the more exclusive and longer a child is breastfed, the more protection from overweight and obesity is conferred. Mechanisms of action are explored in this article. It is of paramount importance to provide evidence-based lactation support and care to families to improve the incidence, exclusivity, and duration of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding is one concrete method to address the obesity epidemic that is growing worldwide.
    The Journal of perinatal & neonatal nursing 01/2014; 28(1):41-50. DOI:10.1097/JPN.0000000000000009 · 1.01 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The increase in childhood obesity is a serious public health concern. Several studies have indicated that breastfed children have a lower risk of childhood obesity than those who were not breastfed, while other studies have provided conflicting evidence. The objective of this meta-analysis was to investigate the association between breastfeeding and the risk of childhood obesity. The PubMed, EMBASE and CINAHL Plus with Full Text databases were systematically searched from start date to 1st August 2014. Based on the meta-analysis, pooled adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. I2 statistic was used to evaluate the between-study heterogeneity. Funnel plots and Fail-safe N were used to assess publication bias and reliability of results, and results from both Egger test and Begg test were reported. Twenty-five studies with a total of 226,508 participants were included in this meta-analysis. The studies' publication dates ranged from 1997 to 2014, and they examined the population of 12 countries. Results showed that breastfeeding was associated with a significantly reduced risk of obesity in children (AOR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.81). Categorical analysis of 17 studies revealed a dose-response effect between breastfeeding duration and reduced risk of childhood obesity. Results of our meta-analysis suggest that breastfeeding is a significant protective factor against obesity in children.
    BMC Public Health 12/2014; 14(1):1267. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1267 · 2.32 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Sep 2, 2014