Do differences in childhood diet explain the reduced overweight risk in breastfed children?
ABSTRACT Breastfeeding has been associated with a reduced risk of overweight later in life. This study investigates whether differences in diet and lifestyle at 7 years of age between breastfed and formula-fed children can explain the difference in overweight prevalence at 8 years of age. We studied 2,043 Dutch children born in 1996-1997 who participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth cohort study. Data on breastfeeding duration and diet and lifestyle factors at 7 years were collected using questionnaires. Weight and height were measured at 8 years. Overweight was defined according to international gender- and age-specific standards. Compared to nonbreastfed children (15.5%, n = 316), children breastfed for >16 weeks (38.0%, n = 776) consumed fruit and vegetables significantly more often and meat, white bread, carbonated soft drinks, chocolate bars, and fried snacks less often. Overall, breastfed children were less likely to have an unhealthy diet (adjusted prevalence ratio: 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.61-0.98). The associations could only partly be explained by maternal education, maternal overweight, and smoking during pregnancy. At 8 years, 14.5% (n = 297) of the children were overweight. Breastfeeding for >16 weeks was significantly associated with a lower overweight risk at 8 years (adjusted odds ratio: 0.67, 95% confidence interval: 0.47-0.97), and the association hardly changed after adjustment for diet (adjusted odds ratio: 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.49-1.03). Breastfed children had a healthier diet at 7 years compared to nonbreastfed children, but this difference could not explain the lower overweight risk at 8 years in breastfed children.Obesity (2008) 16 11, 2498-2503. doi:10.1038/oby.2008.403.
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ABSTRACT: The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study was initiated in 1996. Children born to allergic mothers were enrolled in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial for evaluating the use of mite-impermeable mattress and pillow covers. Children born to allergic and non-allergic mothers were enrolled in a 'natural history' study to assess the role of environmental and dietary risk factors for the development of allergic disease in childhood. Recruitment started by distributing a validated screening questionnaire among >10,000 pregnant women during their first visit to a prenatal health clinic. Allergic mothers-to-be were invited to participate in the intervention study. Allergic, and a random sample of non-allergic, mothers-to-be were invited to participate in the 'natural history' arm of the study. In the intervention study, homes were visited before birth, 3 months after birth, and 12 months after birth for the collection of dust samples from floors and mattresses. In addition, the homes of about one-third of the children in the 'natural history' part of the study were visited for dust collection when the children were 3 months of age. The intervention study started with 855 participants and the 'natural history' study with 3,291 participants. Follow-up at 3 years of age has now been completed with satisfactory compliance (>90%). A medical investigation and home visit at 4years of age are nearing completion. Preliminary results show that mite-allergen levels were lower than found in previous Dutch studies, and that the intervention measure had a significant effect on mite-allergen levels, without important clinical benefits up to age 2 years old. The allergic families lived in homes with fewer 'triggers' such as pets, smoking and carpets than the non-allergic families, regardless of the intervention. The ongoing PIAMA cohort study will probably reveal useful information concerning effects of allergen load and reduction in the setting of a relatively low mite-allergen exposure, as well as other variables on the development of allergic manifestions and asthma.Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 01/2002; 13 Suppl 15:55-60. · 3.38 Impact Factor
Article: Development of food preferences.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Using a developmental systems perspective, this review focuses on how genetic predispositions interact with aspects of the eating environment to produce phenotypic food preferences. Predispositions include the unlearned, reflexive reactions to basic tastes: the preference for sweet and salty tastes, and the rejection of sour and bitter tastes. Other predispositions are (a) the neophobic reaction to new foods and (b) the ability to learn food preferences based on associations with the contexts and consequences of eating various foods. Whether genetic predispositions are manifested in food preferences that foster healthy diets depends on the eating environment, including food availability and child-feeding practices of the adults. Unfortunately, in the United States today, the ready availability of energy-dense foods, high in sugar, fat, and salt, provides an eating environment that fosters food preferences inconsistent with dietary guidelines, which can promote excess weight gain and obesity.Annual Review of Nutrition 02/1999; 19:41-62. · 9.16 Impact Factor
- BMJ. 01/2000; 320:1240-1243.