Article

Do differences in childhood diet explain the reduced overweight risk in breastfed children?

Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Obesity (Impact Factor: 4.39). 09/2008; 16. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2008.403
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT Breastfeeding has been associated with a reduced risk of overweight later in life. This study investigates whether differences in diet and lifestyle at 7 years of age between breastfed and formula-fed children can explain the difference in overweight prevalence at 8 years of age. We studied 2,043 Dutch children born in 1996-1997 who participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth cohort study. Data on breastfeeding duration and diet and lifestyle factors at 7 years were collected using questionnaires. Weight and height were measured at 8 years. Overweight was defined according to international gender- and age-specific standards. Compared to nonbreastfed children (15.5%, n = 316), children breastfed for >16 weeks (38.0%, n = 776) consumed fruit and vegetables significantly more often and meat, white bread, carbonated soft drinks, chocolate bars, and fried snacks less often. Overall, breastfed children were less likely to have an unhealthy diet (adjusted prevalence ratio: 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.61-0.98). The associations could only partly be explained by maternal education, maternal overweight, and smoking during pregnancy. At 8 years, 14.5% (n = 297) of the children were overweight. Breastfeeding for >16 weeks was significantly associated with a lower overweight risk at 8 years (adjusted odds ratio: 0.67, 95% confidence interval: 0.47-0.97), and the association hardly changed after adjustment for diet (adjusted odds ratio: 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.49-1.03). Breastfed children had a healthier diet at 7 years compared to nonbreastfed children, but this difference could not explain the lower overweight risk at 8 years in breastfed children.Obesity (2008) 16 11, 2498-2503. doi:10.1038/oby.2008.403.

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    • "The number of obese children was too small for analyses with fully adjusted regression models, and obesity was therefore not used as outcome measure in these analyses. In previous studies in the PIAMA cohort, breast feeding was investigated in relation to overweight risk and was found to be associated with reduced overweight risk [12] [13] "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To prospectively identify behavioral risk factors for childhood overweight and to assess their relevance in high risk sub groups (children of mothers with overweight or low education). Methods. In the PIAMA birth cohort (n = 3963), questionnaire data were obtained at ages 5 and 7 on “screen time”, walking or cycling to school, playing outside, sports club membership, fast food consumption, snack consumption and soft drink consumption. Weight and height were measured at age 8 years. Results. Screen time, but none of the other hypothesized behavioral factors, was associated with overweight (aOR 1.4 (CI: 1.2–1.6)). The adjusted population attributable risk fraction for screen time > 1 hr/day was 10% in the high risk and 17% in the low risk sub groups. Conclusion. Reduction of screen time to < 1 hr/day could result in a reduction of overweight prevalence in the order of 2 percentage points in both high and low risks sub groups.
    Journal of obesity 06/2010; 2010. DOI:10.1155/2010/423296
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    • "A number of primary and review articles provide strong evidence of the protective effect of breastfeeding against overweight/obesity [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]. Despite this strong evidence, other studies have reported an inverse relationship or no relationship at all between breastfeeding and overweight/obesity [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Research studies have produced conflicting results of the impact of breastfeeding on overweight/obesity. This study evaluated the impact of infant feeding on infant body composition. There were two groups of mother-infant pairs (exclusive breastfeeding [EBF; n = 27] and mixed feeding [MF; n = 13]) in this study. At baseline, participants were similar in their demographic characteristics except prepregnancy weight, where MF mothers tended to be heavier than their EBF counterparts (67.3 kg versus 59.9 kg; P = .034). Infant birth weight was slightly higher among the MF group than their EBF counterparts (3.5 kg versus 3.4 kg), although the differences were not statistically significant. At 3 months postpartum, mean infant FMI (4.1 kg/m(2) versus 3.8 kg/m(2)) and percent body fat (24.4% versus 23.1%) were slightly higher among EBF infants than MF infants. In terms of growth velocity, EBF infants gained weight faster than their MF counterparts, although the differences were not statistically significant. The findings from this study suggest that EBF may promote faster weight gain and increase in both fat mass index (FMI) and percent body fat in the early postpartum period in addition to the numerous health benefits enjoyed by the infant and the mother who exclusively breastfeeds her newborn.
    International Journal of Pediatrics 03/2009; 2009(1687-9740):648091. DOI:10.1155/2009/648091
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    • "Breast-feeding has also been found to be associated with later parental feeding style and practices (Farrow & Blissett, 2006; Fisher, Birch, Smiciklas-Wright, & Picciano, 2000; Taveras et al., 2004), which could indicate that breast-feeding merely reflects parents' global parenting philosophy. Other suggested behavioural mechanisms include children' s fruit and vegetable intake (Cooke et al., 2004; Scholtens et al., 2008; Toschke et al., 2002), sweetened beverage intake and added sugar intake (Lande et al., 2004), and sedentary behaviour (Scholtens et al., 2008; Toschke et al., 2002), although most studies did not find significant mediation of these factors in the relationship between breast-feeding and weight development (Scholtens et al., 2008; Toschke et al., 2002). Some suggested that mothers who breast-feed might be more nutritionconscious in general (Kramer et al., 2002). "
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