A prospective study of posttraumatic growth as assessed by self-report and family caregiver in the context of advanced cancer

Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Psycho-Oncology (Impact Factor: 2.44). 05/2011; 20(5):479-87. DOI: 10.1002/pon.1746
Source: PubMed


The study of posttraumatic growth (PTG) has burgeoned over the last decade, particularly in the area of oncology. The aims of the study were to: (1) describe PTG in patients with hepatobiliary carcinoma, (2) examine agreement between the patient and caregiver measures of patient PTG, and (3) test the associations between PTG and other psychological factors and clinically relevant outcomes.
Two hundred and two patients with hepatobiliary carcinoma completed a battery of standardized questionnaires that measured PTG, depressive symptoms, optimism, expressed emotion, and quality of life (QOL). A subsample of family caregivers also completed ratings of patient PTG, using the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI), as well as their own PTG.
No significant increase in the patients' PTG was observed between diagnosis and 6-month follow-up with the exception of the Relating to Others subscale of the PTGI. PTG was not found to be associated with QOL or depressive symptoms. At diagnosis, the agreement between the patients' PTG and family caregivers' rating of patient PTG was found to be high (ICC=0.34-0.74, p=0.001-0.05). PTG was found to be significantly associated with optimism (r=0.20 p=0.02-0.05) and traumatic life events reported in the past 3 years, including recent losses (F(1, 52)=6.0, p=0.02) and severe physical injury (F(1, 52)=5.5, p=0.02). Caregivers reported PTG as a result of their loved one's diagnosis of cancer.
Preliminary results suggest that PTG is relatively stable over the first 6 months after diagnosis and changes as a result of a diagnosis of cancer were reported, and possibly observed, by others. Family caregivers also experience PTG as a result of their loved one's diagnosis of advanced cancer.

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Available from: T. Clark Gamblin, Jul 11, 2014
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    • "This type of growth pertains to positive changes resulting from indirect exposure to the partner's trauma, and can be coined the term secondary PTG. For example, caregivers of patients with advanced cancer reported PTG at six months following their partner's diagnosis (Moore et al., 2011). Likewise, wives of former prisoners of war reported PTG as far as 30 years after the war (Dekel, 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the relationship between posttraumatic growth (PTG) and distress in spouses of trauma survivors. A sample of spouses of combat veterans of the 1973 Yom Kippur War were assessed using questionnaires pertaining to PTG, depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress, in 2004 and 2011. Applying cross-lagged modeling strategy, higher PTG levels predicted higher depression and anxiety levels above and beyond initial distress. Thus, psychological growth in spouses of survivors appears to signify subsequent distress.
    Psychiatry Research 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.09.018 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    • ") affect PTG, only a few prospective studies have specifically examined the relations between pretrauma psychological factors (e.g., psychological distress) and PTG (e.g., Frazier et al., 2009; Moore et al., 2011 "
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    ABSTRACT: Posttraumatic growth (PTG) is viewed as a positive psychological change resulting from a struggle with trauma. A number of trauma-related factors have been proven effective in predicting PTG; however, the effects of pretrauma psychological factors on PTG have not been adequately evaluated (e.g., using a prospective design). This prospective study examined the effects of pretrauma psychological factors (e.g., coping styles, prior trauma) on PTG. In total, 810 Taiwanese undergraduate students were recruited for a baseline survey (Time 1), among whom 592 completed a survey 2 months later (Time 2). Data from 110 participants who had experienced trauma between Time1 and Time 2 were used for analysis. Among the pretrauma factors examined at baseline, only rumination and distractive style were positively correlated with PTG. The posttrauma factors based on Calhoun and Tedeschi's model (i.e., core belief challenge, deliberate rumination, and social support) were also positively correlated with PTG. A hierarchical regression analysis showed that pretrauma coping styles had an incremental effect on PTG beyond posttrauma predictors. Deliberate rumination signifciantly mediated the relationship between pretrauma rumination and PTG. These findings highlight the role of pretrauma psychological factors in PTG and present further support for Calhoun and Tedeschi's model of PTG. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychological Trauma Theory Research Practice and Policy 08/2014; 7(2). DOI:10.1037/tra0000008 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    • "Correlación con CPT superviviente. Significativa Manne et al., 2004; Thornton y Pérez, 2006, Zwahlen et al., 2010; Moore et al., 2011 Escasa o nula. El CPT es autónomo Dimensiones del CPT Compartidas Zwahlen et al., 2010; Moore et al., 2011 Diferenciadas. "
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    ABSTRACT: Resumen Las enfermedades graves como el cáncer, aunque generan elevado malestar emocional y estrés en los super-vivientes y en sus otros significativos, también pueden suponer un estímulo en la generación de crecimiento postraumático en ambos. Los mecanismos de cómo se produce este crecimiento postraumático (vicario vs. secundario) en los otros significativos no se han estudiado. En esta revisión se analizan la evidencia y relación del crecimiento post-traumático en supervivientes de cáncer y en sus otros significativos, princi-palmente sus parejas, madres y padres, en relación a estos mecanismos de transmisión vicario o secundario. Se concluye que, en general, el crecimiento post-traumático en los otros significativos es una experiencia vicaria íntimamente ligada al crecimiento del superviviente en cáncer, aunque ser mujer, madre o sufrir un cáncer avanzado facilitan procesos de crecimiento post-traumático secundario en los otros significativos, que se diferencian del superviviente. Palabras clave: crecimiento post-traumático vicario, crecimiento post-traumático secundario, otros significativos, parejas, padres. Abstract Severe diseases such as cancer although generate high stress and emotional distress in survivors and their significant others, can also be a stimulus to promote posttraumatic growth. The mechanisms of this post-traumatic growth (vicarious vs secondary) in significant others have not been studied. This review examines the evidence and relationship between posttraumatic growth in cancer survivors and their significant others, mainly in their partners and parents, regarding these vicarious or secondary growth transmission mechanisms. We conclude that, in general, posttraumatic growth in significant others is a vicarious experience closely linked to the cancer survivor's growth. However, being a woman, mother or suffer an advanced cancer facilitate secondary posttraumatic growth processes insignificant others.
    Terapia Psicologica 03/2013; 31(1):81-92. · 0.61 Impact Factor
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