Alteration of vitamin D metabolic enzyme expression and calcium transporter abundance in kidney involved in type 1 diabetes-induced bone loss.
ABSTRACT This study aimed to delineate the mechanism involved in type 1 diabetes-induced bone loss. The results revealed the alteration of vitamin D metabolic enzyme expression and the downregulation of renal calcium transporter abundance in type 1 diabetic mice.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of the expression of vitamin D metabolic enzymes and transcellular calcium-transporting proteins in kidneys from mice with experimentally induced diabetes.
Male DBA/2J mice were injected with either vehicle (control) or streptozotocin (STZ) daily for five consecutive days. Bone mineral density was measured by peripheral quantitative computerized tomography, and bone histomorphology was analyzed by Safranin O staining. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were applied to determine the expression of target genes and proteins.
Type 1 diabetes produced high urinary calcium excretion and loss of trabecular bone measured at the proximal metaphysis of the tibia and the distal femur. Bone loss was associated with deterioration of trabecular bone microstructure. Quantified PCR results showed that mRNA expression level in the kidney of diabetic mice for 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase was downregulated at week 10, while those for 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase were upregulated at week 20. In addition, mRNA expression levels for renal transient receptor potential V6, plasma membrane Ca-ATPase (PMCA)1b, and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes were decreased in STZ-treated mice. Western blot analysis showed that protein expression of PMCA1b and VDR was significantly decreased in kidneys from STZ-treated mice compared to that of controls.
The limitation in this study is the lack of vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and phosphorus levels in serum. However, the present study supports the conclusion that the underlying mechanism contributing to type 1 diabetes-associated bone loss may be alterations of vitamin D metabolic enzyme expression and associated decreases in expression of renal calcium transporters.
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ABSTRACT: The effects of urinary-tract obstruction on renal function have been clarified. However, there is little known about the change of renal vitamin D metabolic enzyme expression and vitamin D-dependent calcium transporting proteins expression in obstructive nephropathy. The male mice were subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (n = 10) or sham operation (n = 10). All mice were killed on day 7 after the surgical operation. Kidney sections were stained with Masson's trichrome and gene expression was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. The obstructed kidney exhibited interstitial fibrosis as shown by the strong collagen deposition in the interstitium. Quantitative PCR results showed the increase of 1-OHase (P < 0.001) mRNA expression and the decrease of 24-OHase (P < 0.01), CaBP-9k (P < 0.01) and CaBP-28k (P < 0.01) mRNA expression in obstructed kidney as compared to that of the Sham group. In addition, the mRNA expression of 1-OHase and CaBP-9k was significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in obstructed kidney as compared to that of the contra-lateral kidney in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mice. Together, the present finding supports the hypothesis that the ureteral obstruction leads to the alteration of renal vitamin D metabolic enzyme expression and calcium transporter abundance, which may secondarily induce the abnormality of vitamin D endocrine system and bone health.Nephrology 11/2011; 16(8):710-4. DOI:10.1111/j.1440-1797.2011.01495.x · 1.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: This study was performed to address the pathological roles of the skeletal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in type 1 diabetes-induced osteoporosis and the effects of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker losartan on bones in diabetic mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bone histomorphology was detected by H&E staining, Safranin O staining and X-ray radiography. Micro-CT was performed for the analysis of bone parameters. Gene and protein expression were determined by RT-PCR and immunoblotting. RESULTS: Type 1 diabetic mice displayed osteopenia phenotype, and losartan treatment had no osteoprotective effects on diabetic mice as shown by the reduction of bone mineral density and microarchitectural parameters at the proximal metaphysis of the tibia. The mRNA expression of AGT, renin receptor and ACE, and protein expression of renin and AT1R were markedly up-regulated in the bones of vehicle-treated diabetic mice compared to those of non-diabetic mice. The treatment with losartan further significantly increased the expression of AGT, renin, angiotensin II and AT1R, and reduced the expression of AT2R receptor as compared to those of diabetic mice. CONCLUSION: Local bone RAS functionally played a role in the development of type 1 diabetic osteoporosis, and losartan had no bone-sparing function in diabetes mice because of enhance skeletal RAS activity.Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 01/2013; 15(3). DOI:10.1177/1470320312471229 · 2.27 Impact Factor
Article: Diabetes Mellitus and Osteoporosis.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus (particularly type 2) and osteoporosis are two very common disorders, and both are increasing in prevalence. Adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus may not reach potential peak bone mass, putting them at greater fracture risk. In adults with type 2 diabetes, fracture risk is increased and is not explained by the bone mineral density measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, still considered the gold standard predictor of fracture. In this review, we explore potential mechanisms behind the increased fracture risk that occurs in patients with diabetes, even those with increased bone mineral density. One potential link between diabetes and bone is the osteoblast-produced factor, osteocalcin. It remains to be established whether osteocalcin reflects or affects the connection between bone and glucose metabolism. Several other potential mediators of the effects of diabetes on bone are discussed.Current Diabetes Reports 03/2013; DOI:10.1007/s11892-013-0376-x · 3.38 Impact Factor