A cluster of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) in an office setting: additional evidence of the importance of environmental factors in IBC etiology.
ABSTRACT We investigated a cluster of three cases of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) diagnosed within 10 months in an office setting of 24 people. Information about medical history, pregnancy history, family history of breast cancer, oral contraceptive use/hormone replacement therapy, exposure to possible oncogenic agents and tumor promoters were obtained to determine whether there were differences in risk factors for IBC between cases and controls. The physical environment and location of the cases' office raised concern about air and water quality as well as radiation as being contributory risk factors for developing IBC. Of the three women with IBC, two had high exposures to pesticides/herbicides, all three used oral contraceptives and two used hormone replacement therapy at the time of diagnosis, two had a family history of breast cancer, and two were obese. Among fifteen controls four had pesticide/herbicide exposure, one had a family history of breast cancer, nine used oral contraceptives, seven used hormone replacement therapy, and five were obese. No specific environmental causes were established for this cluster. Several promoting factors have been suggested that could result in subclinical breast cancer emerging as IBC. Among them are exogenous hormones and exposure to herbicides/pesticides.
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ABSTRACT: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) shows a high incidence in Tunisia and Egypt but epidemiological and molecular characteristics have not been described in Algeria. We compared 117 IBC and 59 non-IBC locally advanced breast cancers (LABC), for estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER2, and EGFR protein expression by immunohistochemistry, and HER2 gene amplification by chromogenic in situ hybridization. Demographic, clinico-pathological, and molecular variables were compared with chi-square and Fisher's exact tests to test for significance (P < 0.05, two-tailed). Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were plotted using Kaplan-Meier curves and compared using the log-rank test. Tumor emboli were detected in 77% of IBC. Palpable masses were found in all LABC but only in 32% of IBC (P < 0.001). Recurrences were higher in LABC than in IBC (48 vs. 35%; P = 0.14) but OS was worse in IBC (68 vs. 71%; P = 0.06). There were no significant differences between IBC and LABC by demographics or by clinico-pathological parameters. The majority of IBC and LABC tumors were luminal A (62 and 64%), followed by basal (~18%, each), triple negative (~18%, each), and HER2+ (~10%, each) subtypes. In multivariate analyses, grade was associated with worse OS (P = 0.04), and DFS (P < 0.001) in IBC; chemo- and radio-therapy were associated with improved OS and DFS, respectively (P < 0.05 for each) in LABC. In conclusion, IBC in Algeria shows similar characteristics to IBC described for Egypt and Tunisia with subtle molecular differences. Current therapeutic treatments were not very effective in this population and new approaches are much needed.Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 03/2011; 131(2):437-44. DOI:10.1007/s10549-011-1422-5 · 4.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an endemic herpes virus that re-emerges in cancer patients enhancing oncogenic potential. Recent studies have shown that HCMV infection is associated with certain types of cancer morbidity such as glioblastoma. Although HCMV has been detected in breast cancer tissues, its role, if any, in the etiology of specific forms of breast cancer has not been investigated. In the present study we investigated the presence of HCMV infection in inflammatory breast cancer (IBC), a rapidly progressing form of breast cancer characterized by specific molecular signature. We screened for anti-CMV IgG antibodies in peripheral blood of 49 non-IBC invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and 28 IBC patients. In addition, we screened for HCMV-DNA in postsurgical cancer and non-cancer breast tissues of non-IBC and IBC patients. We also tested whether HCMV infection can modulate the expression and activation of transcriptional factor NF-κB/p65, a hallmark of IBC. Our results reveal that IBC patients are characterized by a statistically significant increase in HCMV IgG antibody titers compared to non-IBC patients. HCMV-DNA was significantly detected in cancer tissues than in the adjacent non-carcinoma tissues of IBC and IDC, and IBC cancer tissues were significantly more infected with HCMV-DNA compared to IDC. Further, HCMV sequence analysis detected different HCMV strains in IBC patients tissues, but not in the IDC specimens. Moreover, HCMV-infected IBC cancer tissues were found to be enhanced in NF-κB/p65 signaling compared to non-IBC patients. The present results demonstrated a correlation between HCMV infection and IBC. Etiology and causality of HCMV infection with IBC now needs to be rigorously examined.PLoS ONE 02/2013; 8(2):e55755. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0055755 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive and deadly form of breast cancer. Disease-specific research and conferences have been organized since 2008 with the intent to bring together experts in various disciplines. This report focus on the Third International IBC Conference held in Philadelphia on December 2012.Breast cancer research: BCR 11/2013; 15(6):318. DOI:10.1186/bcr3571 · 5.88 Impact Factor