Article

TGF-{beta}1 protects against mesangial cell apoptosis via induction of autophagy.

Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.6). 09/2010; 285(48):37909-19. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M109.093724
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Autophagy can lead to cell death in response to stress, but it can also act as a protective mechanism for cell survival. We show that TGF-β1 induces autophagy and protects glomerular mesangial cells from undergoing apoptosis during serum deprivation. Serum withdrawal rapidly induced autophagy within 1 h in mouse mesangial cells (MMC) as determined by increased microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) levels and punctate distribution of the autophagic vesicle-associated-form LC3-II. We demonstrate that after 1 h there was a time-dependent decrease in LC3 levels that was accompanied by induction of apoptosis, evidenced by increases in cleaved caspase 3. However, treatment with TGF-β1 resulted in induction of the autophagy protein LC3 while suppressing caspase 3 activation. TGF-β1 failed to rescue MMC from serum deprivation-induced apoptosis upon knockdown of LC3 by siRNA and in MMC from LC3 null (LC3(-/-)) mice. We show that TGF-β1 induced autophagy through TAK1 and Akt activation, and inhibition of PI3K-Akt pathway by LY294002 or dominant-negative Akt suppressed LC3 levels and enhanced caspase 3 activation. TGF-β1 also up-regulated cyclin D1 and E protein levels while down-regulating p27, thus stimulating cell cycle progression. Bafilomycin A1, but not MG132, blocked TGF-β1 down-regulation of p27, suggesting that p27 levels were regulated through autophagy. Taken together, our data indicate that TGF-β1 rescues MMC from serum deprivation-induced apoptosis via induction of autophagy through activation of the Akt pathway. The autophagic process may constitute an adaptive mechanism to glomerular injury by inhibiting apoptosis and promoting mesangial cell survival.

0 Followers
 · 
76 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common cause of end-stage kidney disease worldwide, and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Increasing prevalence of diabetes has made the need for effective treatment of DN critical, and identifying new therapeutic targets to improve clinical management. Autophagy is a highly conserved "self-eating" pathway by which cells degrade and recycle macromolecules and organelles. Autophagy serves as an essential mechanism to maintain homeostasis of glomeruli and tubules, and plays important roles in human health and diseases. Impairment of autophagy is implicated in the pathogenesis of DN. Emerging body of evidence suggests that targeting the autophagic pathway to activate and restore autophagy activity may be renoprotective. Here we review current advances in our understanding of the roles of autophagy in diabetic kidney injury, focusing on studies in renal cells in culture, human kidney tissues, and experimental animal models of diabetes. We discuss the major nutrient-sensing signal pathways, and diabetes-induced altered intracellular metabolism and cellular events, including accumulation of advanced glycation end-products, increased oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, hypoxia, and activation of the renin angiotensin system, which modulate autophagic activity and contribute to the development of DN. We also highlight recent studies of autophagy and transforming growth factor-β in renal fibrosis, the final common response to injury that ultimately leads to end-stage kidney failure in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. These findings suggest the possibility that autophagy can be a therapeutic target against DN.
    Journal of Endocrinology 10/2014; DOI:10.1530/JOE-14-0437 · 3.59 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Renal fibrosis is the hallmark of virtually all progressive kidney diseases and strongly correlates with the deterioration of kidney function. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade is central to the current treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) for the renoprotective effects aimed to prevent or slow progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, the incidence of CKD is still increasing, and there is a critical need for new therapeutics. Here, we review novel strategies targeting various components implicated in the fibrogenic pathway to inhibit or retard the loss of kidney function. We focus, in particular, on antifibrotic approaches that target transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, a key mediator of kidney fibrosis, and exciting new data on the role of autophagy. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-7 and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) are highlighted as modulators of profibrotic TGF-β activity. BMP-7 has a protective role against TGF-β1 in kidney fibrosis, whereas CTGF enhances TGF-β-mediated fibrosis. We also discuss recent advances in the development of additional strategies for antifibrotic therapy. These include strategies targeting chemokine pathways via CC chemokine receptors 1 and 2 to modulate the inflammatory response, inhibition of phosphodiesterase to restore nitric oxide-cyclic 3',5'-guanosine monophosphate function, inhibition of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 1 and 4 to suppress reactive oxygen species production, and inhibition of endothelin 1 or tumor necrosis factor α to ameliorate progressive renal fibrosis. Furthermore, a brief overview of some of the biomarkers of kidney fibrosis is currently being explored that may improve the ability to monitor antifibrotic therapies. It is hoped that evidence based on the preclinical and clinical data discussed in this review leads to novel antifibrotic therapies effective in patients with CKD to prevent or delay progression to ESRD.
    Translational Research 08/2014; 165(4). DOI:10.1016/j.trsl.2014.07.010 · 4.04 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Apoptosis and autophagy are two patterns of programmed cell death which play important roles in the intervertebral disc degeneration. Oxidative stress is an important factor for the induction of programmed cell death. However, the cellular reactions linking autophagy to apoptosis of disc cells under oxidative stress have never been described. This study investigated the responses of autophagy and apoptosis and their interactions in the nucleus pulposus cells (NP cells) under oxidative stress, with the aim to better understand the mechanism of disc degeneration. Methods: NP cells isolated from rat lumbar discs were subjected to different concentrations of H2O2 for various time periods. Cell viability was determined by CCK-8 assay, and their apoptosis and autophagy responses were evaluated by fluorescent analysis, flow cytometry and western blotting, et al. The interactions of autophagy and apoptosis and the possible signaling pathways were also investigated by using autophagy modulators. Results: H2O2 increased the lysosomal membrane permeability in the NP cells and induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway subsequently. Meanwhile, H2O2 stimulated an early autophagy response through the ERK/m-TOR signaling pathway. Autophagy inhibition significantly decreased the apoptosis incidence in the cells insulted by H2O2. Conclusion: These results suggested that controlling the autophagy response in the NP cells under oxidative stress should be beneficial for the survival of the cells and probably delay the process of disc degeneration. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 09/2014; 34(4):1175-1189. DOI:10.1159/000366330 · 3.55 Impact Factor