The extreme C terminus of the ABC protein DrrA contains unique motifs involved in function and assembly of the DrrAB complex.
ABSTRACT Two novel regulatory motifs, LDEVFL and C-terminal regulatory Glu (E)-rich motif (CREEM), are identified in the extreme C terminus of the ABC protein DrrA, which is involved in direct interaction with the N-terminal cytoplasmic tail of the membrane protein DrrB and in homodimerization of DrrA. Disulfide cross-linking analysis showed that the CREEM and the region immediately upstream of CREEM participate directly in forming an interaction interface with the N terminus of DrrB. A series of mutations created in the LDEVFL and CREEM motifs drastically affected overall function of the DrrAB transporter. Mutations in the LDEVFL motif also significantly impaired interaction between the C terminus of DrrA and the N terminus of DrrB as well as the ability of DrrA and DrrB to co-purify, therefore suggesting that the LDEVFL motif regulates CREEM-mediated interaction between DrrA and DrrB and plays a key role in biogenesis of the DrrAB complex. Modeling analysis indicated that the LDEVFL motif is critical for conformational integrity of the C-terminal domain of DrrA and confirmed that the C terminus of DrrA forms an independent domain. This is the first report which describes the presence of an assembly domain in an ABC protein and uncovers a novel mechanism whereby the ABC component facilitates the assembly of the membrane component. Homology sequence comparisons showed the presence of the LDEVFL and CREEM motifs in close prokaryotic and eukaryotic homologs of DrrA, suggesting that these motifs may play a similar role in other homologous drug and lipid export systems.
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ABSTRACT: The soil bacterium Streptomyces peucetius produces two widely used anticancer antibiotics doxorubicin and daunorubicin. Present within the biosynthesis gene cluster in S. peucetius is the drrAB operon which codes for a dedicated ABC-type transporter for the export of these two closely related antibiotics. Because of its dedicated nature, the DrrAB system is believed to belong to the category of single-drug transporters. However, whether it also contains specificity for other known substrates of multidrug transporters has never been tested. In this study, we demonstrate under both in vivo and in vitro conditions that the DrrAB system can transport not only doxorubicin but is also able to export two most commonly studied MDR substrates, Hoechst 33342 and ethidium bromide. Moreover, we demonstrate that many other substrates (including verapamil, vinblastine, and rifampicin) of the well-studied multi-drug transporters inhibit DrrAB-mediated Dox transport with high efficiency, indicating that they are also substrates of the DrrAB pump. Kinetic studies show that inhibition of doxorubicin transport by Hoechst 33342 and rifampicin occurs by a competitive mechanism whereas verapamil inhibits transport by a non-competitive mechanism, thus suggesting the possibility of more than one drug binding site in the DrrAB system. This is the first in-depth study of a drug resistance system from a producer organism, and it shows that a dedicated efflux system like DrrAB contains specificity for multiple drugs. The significance of these findings in evolution of poly-specificity in drug resistance systems is discussed.Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2014; 289(18). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M113.536136 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The process of biofouling of marine structures and substrates, such as platforms or ship hulls, proceeds in multiple steps. Soon after the formation of an initial conditioning film, formed via the adsorption of organic particles to natural or man-made substrates, a population of different bacterial taxa associates under the formation of a biofilm. These microorganisms communicate through a complex quorum sensing network. Macro-foulers, e.g., barnacles, then settle and form a fouling layer on the marine surfaces, a process that globally has severe impacts both on the economy and on the environment. Since the ban of tributyltin, an efficient replacement of this antifouling compound by next-generation antifouling coatings that are environmentally more acceptable and also showing longer half-lives has not yet been developed. The sponges, as sessile filter-feeder animals, have evolved antifouling strategies to protect themselves against micro- and subsequent macro-biofouling processes. Experimental data are summarized and suggest that coating of the sponge surface with bio-silica contributes to the inhibition of the formation of a conditioning film. A direct adsorption of the surfaces by microorganisms can be impaired through poisoning the organisms with direct-acting secondary metabolites or toxic peptides. In addition, first, compounds from sponges have been identified that interfere with the anti-quorum sensing network. Sponge secondary metabolites acting selectively on diatom colonization have not yet been identified. Finally, it is outlined that direct-acting secondary metabolites inhibiting the growth of macro-fouling animals and those that poison the multidrug resistance pump are available. It is concluded that rational screening programs for inhibitors of the complex and dynamic problem of biofilm production, based on multidisciplinary studies and using sponges as a model, are required in the future.Marine Biotechnology 03/2013; DOI:10.1007/s10126-013-9497-0 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The peroxisome is a single membrane-bound organelle in eukaryotic cells involved in lipid metabolism, including β-oxidation of fatty acids. The human genetic disorder X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene (encoding ALDP, a peroxisomal half ATP-binding cassette [ABC] transporter). This disease is characterized by defective peroxisomal β-oxidation and a large accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids in brain white matter, adrenal cortex, and testis. ALDP forms a homodimer proposed to be the functional transporter, whereas the peroxisomal transporter in yeast is a heterodimer comprising two half ABC transporters, Pxa1p and Pxa2p, both orthologs of human ALDP. While the carboxyl-terminal domain of ALDP is engaged in dimerization, it remains unknown whether the same region is involved in the interaction between Pxa1p and Pxa2p.PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e104892. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0104892 · 3.53 Impact Factor