Dietary and Activity Correlates of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Among Adolescents

Michael & Susan Dell Center for Health Living, University of Texas School of Public Health, 1616 Guadalupe St, Suite 6.300, Austin, TX 78701, USA.
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.47). 09/2010; 126(4):e754-61. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2010-1229
Source: PubMed


To examine the dietary and activity correlates of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption by children in middle and high school.
Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of 15,283 children in middle and high schools in Texas. Consumption of sodas and noncarbonated flavored and sports beverages (FSBs) were examined separately for their associations with the level of (1) unhealthy food (fried meats, French fries, desserts) consumption, (2) healthy food (vegetables, fruit, and milk) consumption, (3) physical activity including usual vigorous physical activity and participation in organized physical activity, and (4) sedentary activity, including hours spent watching television, using the computer, and playing video games.
For both genders, consumption of soda and FSBs was systematically associated with a number of unhealthy dietary practices and with sedentary behaviors. However, consumption of FSBs showed significant positive graded associations with several healthy dietary practices and level of physical activity, whereas soda consumption showed no such associations with healthy behaviors.
Consumption of FSBs coexists with healthy dietary and physical activity behaviors, which suggests popular misperception of these beverages as being consistent with a healthy lifestyle. Assessment and obesity-prevention efforts that target sugar-sweetened beverages need to distinguish between FSBs and sodas.

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    • "Sports drinks are a specific category of SSBs. Although sports drinks may be helpful in replenishing blood glucose levels during and following high-intensity exercise and maintaining hydration during prolonged exercise in hot environments [9], excessive consumption may increase the risk of children and adolescents becoming overweight or obese [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Organized sport provides one option for children to be physically active. However, there is a paucity of information about the relationship between children's participation in organized sport and their diet, and specifically their sports drink consumption. Therefore, the relationship between sports participation in children and the consumption of sports drinks, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and other components of diet was examined. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using baseline data from the Action Schools! BC Dissemination study cohort (n = 1421; 9.90 (0.58) y; 736 girls, 685 boys). The differences between the dietary behaviours of children participating in organized sport (sport) versus those that did not participate (non-sport) was examined. A modified Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) was used to measure physical activity levels and participation in organized sport. A Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour dietary recall were used to assess eating behaviour and macronutrient intake (including protein, fat, and carbohydrate as well as sugar, fibre and total calories). Fruit, vegetable and beverage quantities were hand-tallied from the dietary recall. Fruit, vegetable and beverage frequency was assessed using the FFQ. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyse differences between groups and a chi-square test of association was use to determine if participation in sport was significantly associated with the proportion of children consuming sports drinks and SSBs, and with gender. Children involved in sport had a lower body mass index (BMI) and were more physically active than children in the non-sport group (p < 0.01). Only a small number (n = 20/1421) of children consumed sports drinks and no difference in consumption of sports drink between sport and non-sport participants (p > .05) was observed. However, children involved in organized sport consumed more total calories, fat, fibre, fruit, vegetables and non-flavoured milk (p < 0.01) than non-sport children. Children involved in organized sport were more physically active, consumed a healthier diet than non-participants and on average had lower BMI's despite consuming more calories. As consumption of sports drinks among this age group was low, this may be an ideal time to begin educating children and their parents about the appropriate consumption of sports drinks and the perils of consuming too many SSBs, specifically.
    Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 08/2013; 10(1):38. DOI:10.1186/1550-2783-10-38 · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    • "This notion is supported by findings showing that elevated body fatness was associated with sedentary behaviours (television viewing) but not with lower total energy expenditure (Jackson et al., 2009). Our findings showing that physical activity did not correlate with the consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks but did associate significantly with the intake of energy drinks are in agreement with the findings of a recent study performed on a large sample of American adolescents (Ranjit et al., 2010). The likely reason for these findings is that energy drinks have largely been marketed as being consistent with an active lifestyle, and they are often found in vending machines in sports and fitness clubs, as well as having a notable presence at the majority of sports events. "
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the inter-relationships between lifestyle factors in youth is important with respect to the development of effective promotional programmes for healthy eating and active living. The present study aimed to explore the associations of dietary habits (DH) with physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) among Saudi adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years of age relative to gender. Data were obtained from the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study, a school-based multicentre lifestyle study conducted in 2009/2010 in three major cities in Saudi Arabia. A multistage stratified cluster random sampling technique was used. The number of participants with complete data for DH and PA was 2886 and the respective number for DH and ST was 2822. Assessment included weight, height, body mass index, total daily ST (television viewing, video/computer games and Internet use), PA and DH using self-reported questionnaires. Females were significantly more sedentary and less active than males (P < 0.001). Two-way analysis of covariance, controlling for age, showed significant (P < 0.05) gender by PA and gender by ST interactions for several DH. Logistic regression analyses revealed significant associations of higher PA with a higher consumption of fruit, vegetables, milk, French fries/potato chips and energy drinks, whereas higher ST was significantly associated with a higher consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks, fast foods, cake/doughnuts and energy drinks. Healthful dietary habits were associated mostly with PA, whereas sedentary behaviours, independent of PA, negatively impacted upon eating behaviours. The low PA levels and high sedentary levels of Saudi females represent a great concern. The results reported in the present study have important implications for both youth public health policies and intervention programmes.
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    • "Table 1). This finding is similar to previous studies that reported gender to be significantly associated with high SSB intake among U.S. adolescents [22,23]. "
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